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Can anyone recommend good books on these two events or any other material that might shed light on this part of history. Vadda Ghallughara of 1762 The Vadda Ghallūghārā was a dramatic and bloody massacre during the campaign of Afganistan (Durrani Empire) provincial government based at Lahore to wipe out the Sikhs, an offensive that had begun with the Mughals and lasted several decades. About 30,000 Sikhs, mostly non-combatants, were killed in the event and an estimated that 15,000 to 20,000 Sikhs were killed on February 5, 1762. Chhota Ghallughara of 1746 An estimated 7,000 Sikhs were killed and 3,000 captured during this operation. The captives were marched back to Lahore, paraded in the streets and publicly beheaded. Given the small numbers of the Sikhs in those days of persecution, the losses will have been a very substantial proportion of their population.