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It took a few years but I have finally figured out how to read Guru Granth Sahib correctly. While I am still in the process of learning and refining my pronunciations and developing a better flow, I have got the basics down. One of the things we are taught is that you don't pronounce Sihari ( ਿ ) and Aunkar ( ੁ ) at the end of a word. This is wrong. I used to think that sometimes you pronounce the sihari, sometimes you don't that is wrong as well. You always pronounce the Sihari. Aunkar are sometimes pronounced and sometimes not. But in this thread, we'll only be covering words that end in Sihari. Sihari ( ਿ ) as Short I Siharis are always pronounced but how they are pronounced depends on the word. Sihari is sometimes pronounced as Short I sound. For example, in the following words, Sihari makes a short I sound - ਹਰਿ Pronouced as Hari Means God, one who steals suffering. Example tuk - ਹਰਿ ਜਨ ਬੋਲਤ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਰਾਮ ਨਾਮਾ ਮਿਲਿ ਸਾਧ ਸੰਗਤਿ ਹਰਿ ਤੋਰ ॥ Hari jan bolat Shri Ram nama mile sadh sangati Hari tor . Notice that we pronounce the Siharis on Hari, Mile and Sangati. However the Sihari on Mile is different from Hari and Sangati. More on this later. ਨਿਧਿ ਸਿਧਿ ਰਿਧਿ ਹਰਿ ਹਰਿ ਹਰਿ ਮੇਰੈ ॥ Nidhi Siddhi Riddhi Hari Hari Hari merai . Let's do a few more examples. ਪੁਰਿ pronounced as Puri (meaning City) Example Tuk - ਬਿਨੁ ਨਾਵੈ ਠਉਰੁ ਨ ਪਾਇਨੀ ਜਮਪੁਰਿ ਦੂਖ ਸਹਾਹਿ ॥ Bin navai tthaur n payenee Yampuri (/jampuri) dookh sahae . Notice how we don't pronouce the Aunkars on bin and tthaur. ਮੂਰਤਿ Pronounced as Moorti (meaning form). Example Tuk - ਸਹਸ ਤਵ ਨੈਨ ਨਨ ਨੈਨ ਹਹਿ ਤੋਹਿ ਕਉ ਸਹਸ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਨਨਾ ਏਕ ਤੋੁਹੀ ॥ Sehas tav nain nan nain hai tohe kou sehas Moorti nana ek tohee ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ Pronounced as Prashadi Prashad means Grace. Prashadi means through the given grace. Prashadi also means - One who gives grace. Example, Mool mantra - ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ Gur prashadi He is the Teacher, the One who gives grace. Let's do an example from the Prayer known as "Ardas". This is a good example of a hymn where all of the words that end in Sihari are pronounced as Short I sound. ਤੂ ਠਾਕੁਰੁ ਤੁਮ ਪਹਿ ਅਰਦਾਸਿ ॥ Toon Thakur tum peh Ardashi. ਜੀਉ ਪਿੰਡੁ ਸਭੁ ਤੇਰੀ ਰਾਸਿ ॥ Jeeu pind sabh teree Rashi. Ardashi means small Arzdasht, a small request. Rashi means property. ਤੁਮ ਮਾਤ ਪਿਤਾ ਹਮ ਬਾਰਿਕ ਤੇਰੇ ॥ Tum Maat Pita hum barik tere. ਤੁਮਰੀ ਕ੍ਰਿਪਾ ਮਹਿ ਸੂਖ ਘਨੇਰੇ ॥ Tumri kripa meh sookh ghanere. ਕੋਇ ਨ ਜਾਨੈ ਤੁਮਰਾ ਅੰਤੁ ॥ Koe na jaanai tumra ant ਊਚੇ ਤੇ ਊਚਾ ਭਗਵੰਤ ॥ Uche te oocha Bhagwant So far so good, next up - ਸਗਲ ਸਮਗ੍ਰੀ ਤੁਮਰੈ ਸੂਤ੍ਰਿ ਧਾਰੀ ॥ Sagal samagree tumrai Sutri dharee. Sutr means "thread". Sutri is a combination of Sutr vich, meaning "in the thread". More on this later. ਤੁਮ ਤੇ ਹੋਇ ਸੁ ਆਗਿਆਕਾਰੀ ॥ Tum te hoye su agyakaree. ਤੁਮਰੀ ਗਤਿ ਮਿਤਿ ਤੁਮ ਹੀ ਜਾਨੀ ॥ Tumree Gati Miti tum hee jaanee. ਨਾਨਕ ਦਾਸ ਸਦਾ ਕੁਰਬਾਨੀ ॥੮॥੪॥ Nanak das sada kurbani. Gati means state of being and Miti means value. Sihari ( ਿ ) as Short Ya Siharis are always pronounced even if they are at the end of a word. Sometimes they are pronounced as Short Ya. In Guru Granth Sahib, Guru ji has indicated words that end in -ye (which is a short -ya sound) with a Sihari. Words like - ਸਤਿ Pronounced as Satye, meaning Truth ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਤੇਰਾ ਪਰਾ ਪੂਰਬਲਾ ॥ Satye naam tera para poorbla. ਸਲਿ Pronounced as Shalye, meaning wound. ਦਾਧੀਲੇ ਲੰਕਾ ਗੜੁ ਉਪਾੜੀਲੇ ਰਾਵਣ ਬਣੁ ਸਲਿ ਬਿਸਲਿ ਆਣਿ ਤੋਖੀਲੇ ਹਰੀ ॥ Dadheele Lanka gardh upardeele Ravan van Shalye Veshalye (/Beshalye) aani tokheele Haree. Sihari ( ਿ ) as Short E Some words have a Sihari at the end of the word to begin with such as Hari, Puri, Murti, Ardashi, Rashi, Gati, Miti. The Sihari is part of the Word. It is pronounced as Short I. Other words have a Sihari to indicate the -ye sound. These are words like Satye and Shalye. The Sihari is part of the Word. It is pronounced as Short Ya. But then there are those words where Sihari is added to a preexisting noun. You may pronounce these words with Short I or Short E depending on preference. ਭਗਤਿ Pronounced as Bhagti, or as Bhagte. Bhagti - a sihari is added to Bhagt to mean "related to Bhagt". Bhagt means Devotee and Bhagti means - related to devotee. Bhagti means Devotional process - Meditation. Example Tuk - ਤੇਰੀ ਭਗਤਿ ਤੇਰੀ ਭਗਤਿ ਭੰਡਾਰ ਜੀ ਭਰੇ ਬਿਅੰਤ ਬੇਅੰਤਾ ॥ Teri bhagti teri bhagti bhandar ji bhare beant beanta. Bhagte means Devotee's, belonging to Devotee. ਭਗਤਿ ਵਛਲੁ ਹਰਿ ਮਨਿ ਵਸਿਆ ਸਹਜਿ ਮਿਲਿਆ ਪ੍ਰਭੁ ਸੋਇ ॥ Bhagte vatsal Hari mane vaseya seheje milya prabhu soe Here ਭਗਤਿ is short of ਭਗਤ ਦੇ . Seheje -> Sehej means patience. Seheje means through patience. Mane -> Man means mind. Mane means in the mind. Pronounced as Bhagte, Mane, and Seheje respectively. You will see this a lot. Noun with sihari ending, means "related to the noun". Such as - ਘਰਿ Pronounced as Ghari. Also pronounced as Ghare. Ghar - house. Ghari / Ghare - in the house. We commonly say - Sadde ghare ao. So a lot of these words ending in sihari are commonly pronounced as Short I or Short E. We should pronounce them like that when reading Guru Granth Sahib. Part 2
It took a few years but I have finally figured out how to read Guru Granth Sahib correctly. While I am still in the process of learning and refining my pronunciations and developing a better flow, I have got the basics down. One of the things we are taught is that you don't pronounce Sihari ( ਿ ) and Aunkar ( ੁ ) at the end of a word. This is wrong. 1. You always pronounce the Sihari. 2. You always pronounce the Aunkar if it is part of the actual word. You don't pronounce it when its sole purpose is to indicate a masculine singular noun. In this thread, we will be looking at how to pronounce Dadda ਦ Now in most words Dadda ਦ is going to make the Th- sound where you touch your tongue behind the top row of your front teeth. This I will call the hard Th-. There is another sound though, which is a soft Th-, and it almost sounds like Z. If you are from the west, say - 'this', 'there', 'although'. If you have an Indian accent, you won't notice it. You will pronounce a hard Th- that sounds exactly like Dadda ਦ from Punjabi. But if you have a western accent, Canadian, Amercan, etc. You will hear that 'th' is not exactly the Dadda ਦ from Punjabi. It is softer and borderlines on the Z sound. This is because in the West we don't touch the back of your teeth, but actually we tough the bottom of the teeth, which softens the sound. My point is that sometimes when Guru ji came across Arabic, words, that had a special type of Z sound that was pronounced by touching the teeth. They used Dadda ਦ to indicate it because Dadda is the closest letter to that type of Z sound. Dadda ( ਦ ) as Hard Th- The normal Dadda. ਦੁਖ Pronounced as Dukh ਹੁਕਮੀ ਉਤਮੁ ਨੀਚੁ ਹੁਕਮਿ ਲਿਖਿ ਦੁਖ ਸੁਖ ਪਾਈਅਹਿ ॥ hukmee uttam neech hukmi likhi dukh sukh paeeyeh ਹੁਕਮਿ, ਲਿਖਿ - Remember from past lesson that the Siharis are pronounced all the time. ਉਤਮੁ , ਨੀਚੁ - Also remember that when Aunkar is solely used to incidate singular masculine and is not part of the word then it is not pronounced. ਦਾਤਿ Pronounced as Daati ਗਾਵੈ ਕੋ ਦਾਤਿ ਜਾਣੈ ਨੀਸਾਣੁ ॥ gavai ko daati jaanai neeshaann Dadda as Soft Th- or Z Special Dadda. ਨਦਰੀ Pronounced as Nazaree ਕਰਮੀ ਆਵੈ ਕਪੜਾ ਨਦਰੀ ਮੋਖੁ ਦੁਆਰੁ ॥ karmee aavai kaprda Nazree mokh(sh) duar ਨਦਰ - Notice how we pronounced the ਦ as Z - Nazar. Mokh(sh) - This will be covered in a future lesson.Just like how Dadda sometimes make the Z sound, Khakha sometimes makes the Shatkone sound. ਹਾਦਰਾ Pronounced as Haazraa ਹਦੂਰਿ Pronounced as Hazoori ਗਾਵੈ ਕੋ ਵੇਖੈ ਹਾਦਰਾ ਹਦੂਰਿ ॥ Gavai ko vekhai Haazraa Hazoori ਕਾਦੀਆ Pronounced as Qazeeaan. ਵਖਤੁ ਨ ਪਾਇਓ ਕਾਦੀਆ ਜਿ ਲਿਖਨਿ ਲੇਖੁ ਕੁਰਾਣੁ ॥ Vakht na paayo Qazeeaan je likhni lekh kurann Why is the n there? Here it is plural so we add a bindi to the end indicated by n. If Guru Sahib was calling out to a Qazee "Hey Qazeeaa" then there would be no bindi (n) sound.
It took a few years but I have finally figured out how to read Guru Granth Sahib correctly. While I am still in the process of learning and refining my pronunciations and developing a better flow, I have got the basics down. One of the things we are taught is that you don't pronounce Sihari ( ਿ ) and Aunkar ( ੁ ) at the end of a word. This is wrong. I used to think that sometimes you pronounce the sihari, sometimes you don't that is wrong as well. You always pronounce the Sihari. See this thread for details - Unlike Sihari, Aunkar is sometimes pronounced and sometimes not. In this thread, we'll only be covering words that end in Aunkar. Aunkar ( ੁ ) as Silent The reason why Aunkars are sometimes silent (not pronounced) is because they are used only to indicate a word that is masculine and singular. So for example, in Mool Mantra - ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥ Satye naam karta purakh nirbhau nirvair akaal moorti ayooni (/ajooni) saimbhau gur prashadi. Satye, Prashadi - see the Sihari lesson linked above on why it is pronounced this way Notice how the last Aunkar in the words Naam, Purakh, Nirvair, is silent. This is because in this sentence, these words are referring to a singular, masculine subject, that is, God. Aunkars are not pronounced when it is used solely to indicate that the word is singular and masculine. Another example - ਆਦਿ ਸਚੁ ਜੁਗਾਦਿ ਸਚੁ ॥ Aadi sach yugaadi (/jugaadi) sach . Aadi, Yugaadi - see the Sihari lesson linked above on why it is pronounced this way Sach - meaning Truth is referring to the One Ultimate Truth, that is God. So in the word Sach, the last Aunkar is not pronouced. So we know Aunkar is not pronouced when it is there to indicate masculine and singular. But when is Aunkar pronounced? When Aunkar is part of the original word, then it is either pronounced. To know when to pronounced it you need to be familiar with these words. Aunkar ( ੁ ) as Short OO Aunkar is pronouced as Short OO, the sound that it normally makes, when it part of the original word. Even if the word is Masculine Singular, if the Aunkar is part of the original word, then it is pronounced. ਗੁਰੁ Pronounced as Guru Meaning Teacher. ਗੁਰੁ ਈਸਰੁ ਗੁਰੁ ਗੋਰਖੁ ਬਰਮਾ ਗੁਰੁ ਪਾਰਬਤੀ ਮਾਈ ॥ Guru Eshar guru gorakh Bramaa guru paarvatee mai Notice how the Aunkars on Ishar and Gorakh are silent, whereas the Aunkars on Guru are pronounced. Even though in all cases the words are Masculine Singular, the Aunkars on Guru are pronounced because the original word has an Aunkar. ਪ੍ਰਭੁ Pronounced as Prabhu. Meaning Lord. ਸਤਗੁਰਿ ਮੇਲਿ ਮਿਲਾਇਆ ਨਾਨਕ ਸੋ ਪ੍ਰਭੁ ਨਾਲਿ ॥ Satguri mele milaya Nanak so Prabhu naale Satgure, Mele, Naale - see the Sihari lesson linked above on why it is pronounced this way ਸਾਧੁ Pronounced as Sadhu. Meaning Saint. ਕਰਿ ਕਿਰਪਾ ਮੋਹਿ ਸਾਧੁ ਮਿਲਾਇਆ ॥ Kare kripa mohe Sadhu milaya Aunkar ( ੁ ) as Short -Wa In Guru Granth Sahib, Short - Wa sound is also indicated with an Aunkar. An Aunkar is used instead of the ਵ - Wa letter. The reason for that is, Aunkar sounds very much like a Short -Wa sound. ਤਤੁ Pronounced as Tatwa. Meaning substance, core substance. ਮਿਠਤੁ ਨੀਵੀ ਨਾਨਕਾ ਗੁਣ ਚੰਗਿਆਈਆ ਤਤੁ ॥ mitthat neeveen nanaka gun changyayian Tatwa ਬਿਸੁੰਭਰ Pronounced Vishuambar, Vishwambar. ਸਿਮਰਉ ਜਾਸੁ ਬਿਸੁੰਭਰ ਏਕੈ ॥ Simarau yaash (/jaas) Vishuambar (/Bishuambar) Ekai. Part 3