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Amarjeet Singh_1737

Hari Singh Nalwa And Afghanistan.

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- What makes Hari Singh's conquest of Afghanistan so different from prior conquests lead by the Macedonians and the Marathas?
- What political, social and religious factors assisted Nalwa in consolidating his prowess in Afghanistan?
- What military factors contributed towards Nalwa's victory in Afghanistan?
- How does NATO'S campaign differ from Nalwa's?
-What elements are similar in both historic and modern campaigns?
-If anything what lesson can we derive from both Hari Singh Nalwa's and NATO'S campaigns?

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- What makes Hari Singh's conquest of Afghanistan so different from prior conquests lead by the Macedonians and the Marathas?
- What political, social and religious factors assisted Nalwa in consolidating his prowess in Afghanistan?
- What military factors contributed towards Nalwa's victory in Afghanistan?
- How does NATO'S campaign differ from Nalwa's?
-What elements are similar in both historic and modern campaigns?
-If anything what lesson can we derive from both Hari Singh Nalwa's and NATO'S campaigns?

Mod's edit

hari Singh (or marathas) NEVER conquered Afghanistan.

I would not doubt Nalwa's valour but his militaristic achievements pale in front of Diwan Mohkam Chand and, even, other Sikh generals.

There would not have been any Sikh empire without DMC, this is my firm belief. He led the Sikh forces in the fierce battle with afghans to control Attock fort (Afghanistan border) in July 2013.

Khushwant Singh writes:

"It was the first victory the Punjabi's had ever won over the Afghans and the Pathans. The fort of Attock had been wrested from the Hindu Raja Jaipal in A.D. 1002 by Muhmud Ghazni and since then had remained in the hands of the invaders. Its capture meant the liberation of Northern India from the Pathan and Afghan menace."

nalwa on the other hand was always fighting under some other general or winning some minor battles. Yes, he fought valiantly whenever he had to and defended Jamrud fort. Nalwa did not have to fight to capture Peshawar and Jamrud. in the defence of Jamrud he was "accidently injured" and died.

hari Singh Nalwa was definitely a great warrior but does not warrant the position he is often given as the MOST significant Sikh general of all times. in my opinion, Mohkam deserves this honour.

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"Most of Afghanistan's history prior to the modern state of Afghanistan took place within the context of the various Persian Empires.[14] The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan begins in 1709 with the rise of the Pashtuns - historically known as "Afghans" - when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar followed by the rise of the Durrani Empire in 1747....

[14] http://www.afghan-web.com/history/chron/index.html" - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afghanistan


http://www.ancientl.com/greek/why-did-alexander-the-great-invade-persia/

"WHY DID ALEXANDER THE GREAT INVADE PERSIA?

Upon arriving on the shores of Persian held territory, Alexander the Great hurled his spear in Homeric fashion to show ‘that he received Asia from the gods as a spear-won prize’.
This prize had been made accessible by the inheritance of his father, Philip II of Macedon, whom left behind a professional standing army, an ideological pretext and an expeditionary force already in the field.
As Captain-General of the league of Corinth, imbued with the romantic conceptions of a second Achilles, Alexander would lead the Greeks against the barbarians in a war of vengeance.
However, the reality is far less glamorous, Alexander and his companions set out to invade Persian territory for territorial expansion and profit.
For Alexander himself, the invasion had held further promise, a chance to outshine the achievements of his mythical ancestors and his greatest competitor, his father......."
Sicques, Tigers or Thieves - Eyewitness accounts of the Sikhs (1606-1809)-Chapter 11, page 119 "A Statesmans Note from the Afghan Frontier, 1809
-Chapter 26, pg 275 Sikhs Gather to Oppose Afghan Rule, 1800
-Chapter 33 pg 327 Afghan Retreat Signals Sikh Prosperity, 1790


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North-West_Frontier_Province_(1901%E2%80%931955)
"History[edit]
Most of the territory of this province was originally a part of the Afghan Durrani Kingdom from the 18th century to around the 1820s, when the Sikh ruler or Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the former mayor of the Punjabi city of Lahore, taking advantage of the internal chaos of the Afghan ruling family, declared independence and annexed it to his own empire based out of the Punjab. Later on, after the Second Anglo-Sikh War of 1848–49, when the Punjab came under British rule, this region along with the 'Frontier Tribal Areas' acting as a 'buffer' zone with Afghanistan."
"
48:12
At the time Hari Singh Nalwa conquered the Kyber Pass (Afghanistan)
48:16
From their the pathan (afghan) women in fear
48:20
From their the pathan (afghan) men in fear
48:23
All hid away in fear in the smallest of enclosures within the mountains
48:28
A 19 year old pathan girl who is named Bano (Bibi Bano)
48:32
With her fiance Gulfan
48:36
Was hiding away in a very small enclosure within a mountain
48:41
And asks her fiance Gulfan who are these people who have conquered our region?
48:49
He answers these are the followers and believers of Guru Nanak who call themselves Sikhs
48:55
The pathan girl says I want to go and see who their general is
"
"
49:52
Hari Singh Nalwa says I am a believer of Guru Nanak and Guru Nanak's Sikh
49:58
She said if you believers of Guru Nanak why have you attacked our home(s)
50:07
Hari Singh Nalwa said we haven't conquered (taken) anyones home, we have only protected our own home(s)"

So the difference we find is Sikander/Alexandera invaded for "profit" and Nalwa invaded for survival to avoid further attacks coming in from Afghanistan.

Difficult to compare NATO to Nalwa, different time, different technology, different conflict with a similar denominator of taking over the world under the army of Muhammad. The dhimmi rules are different for Christians as they are for polytheists or dare said followers of an anti christ. Akhmeeeed Durrani/Abdali defined sikhs to be followers of an antichrist according to Sikh history from Persian sources and let's just say mercy for being a demonic army doesn't work as well as followers of Jesus who from koranic evidence may have a glimmer of hope of salvation and might be the good guys it's not as clear cut as it is for demonic anti christ men. However a culture is shared between those Sikhs and afghans, both may have seen the other as a barbarian back then. Sikhs comfort level with our women cohabiting with afghan men is probably much lower then Nato's which can be used a mental game probably around Nalwas time aswell. The technological factor is quite a huge difference.

Edited by JatherdarSahib

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"Most of Afghanistan's history prior to the modern state of Afghanistan took place within the context of the various Persian Empires.[14] The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan begins in 1709 with the rise of the Pashtuns - historically known as "Afghans" - when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar followed by the rise of the Durrani Empire in 1747....

[14] http://www.afghan-web.com/history/chron/index.html" - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afghanistan

http://www.ancientl.com/greek/why-did-alexander-the-great-invade-persia/

"WHY DID ALEXANDER THE GREAT INVADE PERSIA?

Upon arriving on the shores of Persian held territory, Alexander the Great hurled his spear in Homeric fashion to show ‘that he received Asia from the gods as a spear-won prize’.
This prize had been made accessible by the inheritance of his father, Philip II of Macedon, whom left behind a professional standing army, an ideological pretext and an expeditionary force already in the field.
As Captain-General of the league of Corinth, imbued with the romantic conceptions of a second Achilles, Alexander would lead the Greeks against the barbarians in a war of vengeance.
However, the reality is far less glamorous, Alexander and his companions set out to invade Persian territory for territorial expansion and profit.
For Alexander himself, the invasion had held further promise, a chance to outshine the achievements of his mythical ancestors and his greatest competitor, his father......."
Sicques, Tigers or Thieves - Eyewitness accounts of the Sikhs (1606-1809)-Chapter 11, page 119 "A Statesmans Note from the Afghan Frontier, 1809
-Chapter 26, pg 275 Sikhs Gather to Oppose Afghan Rule, 1800
-Chapter 33 pg 327 Afghan Retreat Signals Sikh Prosperity, 1790

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North-West_Frontier_Province_(1901%E2%80%931955)

"History[edit]

Most of the territory of this province was originally a part of the Afghan Durrani Kingdom from the 18th century to around the 1820s, when the Sikh ruler or Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the former mayor of the Punjabi city of Lahore, taking advantage of the internal chaos of the Afghan ruling family, declared independence and annexed it to his own empire based out of the Punjab. Later on, after the Second Anglo-Sikh War of 1848–49, when the Punjab came under British rule, this region along with the 'Frontier Tribal Areas' acting as a 'buffer' zone with Afghanistan."
"
48:12
At the time Hari Singh Nalwa conquered the Kyber Pass (Afghanistan)
48:16
From their the pathan (afghan) women in fear
48:20
From their the pathan (afghan) men in fear
48:23
All hid away in fear in the smallest of enclosures within the mountains
48:28
A 19 year old pathan girl who is named Bano (Bibi Bano)
48:32
With her fiance Gulfan
48:36
Was hiding away in a very small enclosure within a mountain
48:41
And asks her fiance Gulfan who are these people who have conquered our region?
48:49
He answers these are the followers and believers of Guru Nanak who call themselves Sikhs
48:55
The pathan girl says I want to go and see who their general is
"
"
49:52
Hari Singh Nalwa says I am a believer of Guru Nanak and Guru Nanak's Sikh
49:58
She said if you believers of Guru Nanak why have you attacked our home(s)
50:07
Hari Singh Nalwa said we haven't conquered (taken) anyones home, we have only protected our own home(s)"

So the difference we find is Sikander/Alexandera invaded for "profit" and Nalwa invaded for survival to avoid further attacks coming in from Afghanistan.

Difficult to compare NATO to Nalwa, different time, different technology, different conflict with a similar denominator of taking over the world under the army of Muhammad. The dhimmi rules are different for Christians as they are for polytheists or dare said followers of an anti christ. Akhmeeeed Durrani/Abdali defined sikhs to be followers of an antichrist according to Sikh history from Persian sources and let's just say mercy for being a demonic army doesn't work as well as followers of Jesus who from koranic evidence may have a glimmer of hope of salvation and might be the good guys it's not as clear cut as it is for demonic anti christ men. However a culture is shared between those Sikhs and afghans, both may have seen the other as a barbarian back then. Sikhs comfort level with our women cohabiting with afghan men is probably much lower then Nato's which can be used a mental game probably around Nalwas time aswell. The technological factor is quite a huge difference.

Interesting, interesting.

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Interesting, interesting.

"Most of Afghanistan's history prior to the modern state of Afghanistan took place within the context of the various Persian Empires.[14] The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan begins in 1709 with the rise of the Pashtuns - historically known as "Afghans" - when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar followed by the rise of the Durrani Empire in 1747....

[14] http://www.afghan-web.com/history/chron/index.html" - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afghanistan

http://www.ancientl.com/greek/why-did-alexander-the-great-invade-persia/

"WHY DID ALEXANDER THE GREAT INVADE PERSIA?

Upon arriving on the shores of Persian held territory, Alexander the Great hurled his spear in Homeric fashion to show ‘that he received Asia from the gods as a spear-won prize’.
This prize had been made accessible by the inheritance of his father, Philip II of Macedon, whom left behind a professional standing army, an ideological pretext and an expeditionary force already in the field.
As Captain-General of the league of Corinth, imbued with the romantic conceptions of a second Achilles, Alexander would lead the Greeks against the barbarians in a war of vengeance.
However, the reality is far less glamorous, Alexander and his companions set out to invade Persian territory for territorial expansion and profit.
For Alexander himself, the invasion had held further promise, a chance to outshine the achievements of his mythical ancestors and his greatest competitor, his father......."
Sicques, Tigers or Thieves - Eyewitness accounts of the Sikhs (1606-1809)-Chapter 11, page 119 "A Statesmans Note from the Afghan Frontier, 1809
-Chapter 26, pg 275 Sikhs Gather to Oppose Afghan Rule, 1800
-Chapter 33 pg 327 Afghan Retreat Signals Sikh Prosperity, 1790

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North-West_Frontier_Province_(1901%E2%80%931955)

"History[edit]

Most of the territory of this province was originally a part of the Afghan Durrani Kingdom from the 18th century to around the 1820s, when the Sikh ruler or Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the former mayor of the Punjabi city of Lahore, taking advantage of the internal chaos of the Afghan ruling family, declared independence and annexed it to his own empire based out of the Punjab. Later on, after the Second Anglo-Sikh War of 1848–49, when the Punjab came under British rule, this region along with the 'Frontier Tribal Areas' acting as a 'buffer' zone with Afghanistan."
"
48:12
At the time Hari Singh Nalwa conquered the Kyber Pass (Afghanistan)
48:16
From their the pathan (afghan) women in fear
48:20
From their the pathan (afghan) men in fear
48:23
All hid away in fear in the smallest of enclosures within the mountains
48:28
A 19 year old pathan girl who is named Bano (Bibi Bano)
48:32
With her fiance Gulfan
48:36
Was hiding away in a very small enclosure within a mountain
48:41
And asks her fiance Gulfan who are these people who have conquered our region?
48:49
He answers these are the followers and believers of Guru Nanak who call themselves Sikhs
48:55
The pathan girl says I want to go and see who their general is
"
"
49:52
Hari Singh Nalwa says I am a believer of Guru Nanak and Guru Nanak's Sikh
49:58
She said if you believers of Guru Nanak why have you attacked our home(s)
50:07
Hari Singh Nalwa said we haven't conquered (taken) anyones home, we have only protected our own home(s)"

Complete respect to Hari Singh Nalwa for his valour but I would like to correct some myths associated with him. I doubt he would have liked the way his military achievements are exaggerated by the likes of a 'quack' historian Sukhpreet Udhoke. in other words, Nalwa was a great warrior but did not get many opportunities to exhibit his qualities as a military leader (as leading an army independently) like Mohkam Chand, Akali Phula Singh, Misr Diwan Chand did.

First of the myths is that Sikhs conquered AFGHANISTAN. No indian military leader (as in Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, etc) conquered Afghanistan (Kabul) after the Hindu Shahi dynasty lost it in AD 879. The area ANNEXED by Sikhs in 1834 (Peshawar, eastern side of Khyber pass) is not even in the modern day Afghanistan.

Secondly, Nalwa did not fight any battle(skirmishes, minor clashes excluded) to won the above-mentioned areas. Peshawar was annexed in 1834 as the Afghans fled and left the Peshawar fort without defence. Sardar nalwa died defending jamrud fort and that too 'accidently'.

If we analyse the battle triumphs attributed to Nalwa (1807 kasur, 1818 Multan, 1819 Kashmir, 1823 Peshawar, 1834 Peshawar) he fought these battles UNDER some other C-in-C or there was no battle (as in combatant armies taking on each other on a battlefield).

1807 Kasur - there was no battle and whether 16-yr-old HSN played any role in the seize is not clear.

1808 Sialkot - same story - fort (which was under control of Sikh chieftain) seize and no battle. HSN may have participated in this seize as he made a grant to his family purohit/panda at haridwar that year

1818 Multan - Kharak Singh was the CiC in this campaign (Misr Diwan Chand was the military leader but many sikh sardars refused to fight under a Brahmin so Kharak made the nominal CiC). Nalwa was number three (if any such hierarchy existed) in this campaign

1819 Kashmir - Misr Diwan Chand led the Sikh forces, Nalwa could have been his deputy

1823 Naushera - Misr Diwan Chand and Akali Phula Singh were the main leaders

1834 - Peshawar - No battle fought

I must admit here that even though i have spent few hours researching from well-respected history sources,I can be wrong.I would like to corrected if that is the case.

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"Most of Afghanistan's history prior to the modern state of Afghanistan took place within the context of the various Persian Empires.[14] The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan begins in 1709 with the rise of the Pashtuns - historically known as "Afghans" - when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar followed by the rise of the Durrani Empire in 1747....

[14] http://www.afghan-web.com/history/chron/index.html" - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afghanistan

http://www.ancientl.com/greek/why-did-alexander-the-great-invade-persia/

"WHY DID ALEXANDER THE GREAT INVADE PERSIA?

Upon arriving on the shores of Persian held territory, Alexander the Great hurled his spear in Homeric fashion to show ‘that he received Asia from the gods as a spear-won prize’.
This prize had been made accessible by the inheritance of his father, Philip II of Macedon, whom left behind a professional standing army, an ideological pretext and an expeditionary force already in the field.
As Captain-General of the league of Corinth, imbued with the romantic conceptions of a second Achilles, Alexander would lead the Greeks against the barbarians in a war of vengeance.
However, the reality is far less glamorous, Alexander and his companions set out to invade Persian territory for territorial expansion and profit.
For Alexander himself, the invasion had held further promise, a chance to outshine the achievements of his mythical ancestors and his greatest competitor, his father......."
Sicques, Tigers or Thieves - Eyewitness accounts of the Sikhs (1606-1809)-Chapter 11, page 119 "A Statesmans Note from the Afghan Frontier, 1809
-Chapter 26, pg 275 Sikhs Gather to Oppose Afghan Rule, 1800
-Chapter 33 pg 327 Afghan Retreat Signals Sikh Prosperity, 1790

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North-West_Frontier_Province_(1901%E2%80%931955)

"History[edit]

Most of the territory of this province was originally a part of the Afghan Durrani Kingdom from the 18th century to around the 1820s, when the Sikh ruler or Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the former mayor of the Punjabi city of Lahore, taking advantage of the internal chaos of the Afghan ruling family, declared independence and annexed it to his own empire based out of the Punjab. Later on, after the Second Anglo-Sikh War of 1848–49, when the Punjab came under British rule, this region along with the 'Frontier Tribal Areas' acting as a 'buffer' zone with Afghanistan."
"
48:12
At the time Hari Singh Nalwa conquered the Kyber Pass (Afghanistan)
48:16
From their the pathan (afghan) women in fear
48:20
From their the pathan (afghan) men in fear
48:23
All hid away in fear in the smallest of enclosures within the mountains
48:28
A 19 year old pathan girl who is named Bano (Bibi Bano)
48:32
With her fiance Gulfan
48:36
Was hiding away in a very small enclosure within a mountain
48:41
And asks her fiance Gulfan who are these people who have conquered our region?
48:49
He answers these are the followers and believers of Guru Nanak who call themselves Sikhs
48:55
The pathan girl says I want to go and see who their general is
"
"
49:52
Hari Singh Nalwa says I am a believer of Guru Nanak and Guru Nanak's Sikh
49:58
She said if you believers of Guru Nanak why have you attacked our home(s)
50:07
Hari Singh Nalwa said we haven't conquered (taken) anyones home, we have only protected our own home(s)"

So the difference we find is Sikander/Alexandera invaded for "profit" and Nalwa invaded for survival to avoid further attacks coming in from Afghanistan.

Difficult to compare NATO to Nalwa, different time, different technology, different conflict with a similar denominator of taking over the world under the army of Muhammad. The dhimmi rules are different for Christians as they are for polytheists or dare said followers of an anti christ. Akhmeeeed Durrani/Abdali defined sikhs to be followers of an antichrist according to Sikh history from Persian sources and let's just say mercy for being a demonic army doesn't work as well as followers of Jesus who from koranic evidence may have a glimmer of hope of salvation and might be the good guys it's not as clear cut as it is for demonic anti christ men. However a culture is shared between those Sikhs and afghans, both may have seen the other as a barbarian back then. Sikhs comfort level with our women cohabiting with afghan men is probably much lower then Nato's which can be used a mental game probably around Nalwas time aswell. The technological factor is quite a huge difference.

Are there any traces of any Afghani culture in present day Pakistan? I do not mean any cross-cultural evolution due to close proximity but anything carried over from some military campaign or conquest etc.?

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Are there any traces of any Afghani culture in present day Pakistan? I do not mean any cross-cultural evolution due to close proximity but anything carried over from some military campaign or conquest etc.?

How about people in Peshawar Pakistan still speaking pashtun and some farsi? How about people maintaining an Afghan identity from their ancestry as pathan from the pakhtun region as oppossed to a Jinnah based Pakistani one? Or the basic salwar, kameez and hat fashion with styles more like over the border? Or preference in Afghan borders. Some even fooled immigration when western countries were handing over asylum. Food groups aswell which are more popular in afghanistan also arise in afghanistan, there is that irritating broken urdu spoken by peshawaris aswell. This is something detrimental by actually interacting with some in person.

As you can see below that is Pakistan, Peshawar and they are speaking Pashto. If you interact with some who come through diaspora, some can speak pashto but can't speak Urdu. I have read some that the whole wearing of Pajama was forced in practice by Hari Singh Nalwa he forced Afghans to wear pajama like women so that to teach them a lesson of trying to take the virtue of women and from that onwards it caught on as a fashion. It's possible the story may be unture. http://defence.pk/threads/how-fear-of-sardar-hari-singh-nalwa-forced-pashtuns-to-start-wearing-salwar.177048/

Edited by JatherdarSahib

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Hari Singh Nalwa ― Champion of the Khalsaji, How Pashtuns came to wear the Pathani suite a feminine apparel of the Punjabi women folk

Hari Singh Nalwa was the Commander-in-chief at the most turbulent North West Frontier of Ranjit Singh's kingdom. He took the frontier of the Sarkar Khalsaji to the very mouth of the Khyber Pass. For the past eight centuries, marauders, who had indulged in looting, plunder, rape, and forcible conversions to Islam had used this route into the subcontinent. In his lifetime, Hari Singh became a terror to the ferocious tribes inhabiting these regions. He successfully thwarted the last foreign invasion into the subcontinent through the Khyber Pass at Jamrud, permanently blocking this route of the invaders. Even in his death, Hari Singh Nalwa's formidable reputation ensured victory for the Sikhs against an Afghan force five times as numerous.

In accordance with the teaching of their Guru, the Sikhs did not attack the defenceless or the weak. This included children, women, mendicants and the elderly. Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa advised the Pathans that one way they could escape the wrath of an infuriated Sikh was to dress as a woman. In the Punjab, the shalwar kameez is feminine apparel.

The shalwar was a loose trouser with a stiff border at the ankle, while the kameez was a loose shirt falling to the knees. This dress came to popularly be known as the ‘Punjabi suit’ in India. In Pakistan and Afghanistan, men still wear its variant — the ‘Pathan suit’.

Milkha Singh of Gurdwara Darshani Deohri Amritsar, first narrated this story to the author. Many others corroborated it since.

(Source: Nalwa, V. 2009. Hari Singh Nalwa - The Champion of Khalsaji New Delhi: Manohar, p. 264)

The twenty-first century, the Wali of Swat confirmed that the above was indeed a fact:

The following is the gist of an open letter written by Miangul Aurangzeb, the present Wali of Swat, to the Taliban when the Taliban were preaching and enforcing strict dress and conduct codes for the women in the areas that fell under their control.

"At the outset I want to record that you all must love me very much as you have decided not to take over my property in Swat unlike those you have taken over of other landed families. I am therefore emboldened to believe that I have the privilege of sharing some historical facts for you to know about and I urge you to absorb the same before you continue your campaign of moral policing, especially when it comes to the manner of dressing and code of conduct for women.

The Sikh army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, under the leadership of Hari Singh Nalwa came to the Frontier in the 1820's and swiftly conquered our ancestors. It is the only time in recorded history that our people were ruled over by foreigners. The locals were so utterly terrified of the Sikh army that they used to hide every time the Sikhs came into view. Those that decided to resist were met with ruthlessness. During this time, the word was spread around that the Sikhs did not harm elderly people, women and children and that the local men who did not wish to earn wrath of the Sikhs should wear the garb of Punjabi women, which was the Salwar-Kameez. At that time in our history both men and women alike, wore only a single-robe garment (similar to that worn by the Arabs) and the Sikhs would not harm any man either when wearing the Salwar-Kameez.

So you see, our men happily adopted the garb of Punjabi women since they were too terrified to stand up and they have adopted the garb as being theirs' ever since. I am very intrigued to see that you are following in the footsteps of your ancestors by wearing the adopted Punjabi women's garb as your own, but now go around preaching and coercing our women as to how they should be living their lives! I suggest that take a deep look inside yourselves, given this historical perspective."

Sincerely,

Miangul Aurangzeb, Wali of Swat

(Source: Nishaan, Swat: Sanctuary for the Sikhs, III/2009, New Delhi: Nagaara Trust, p. 45)

-------------------------------

Ouch ! This will really hurt if you are a Pashtun but sorry - this is how it is !

Source http://defence.pk/threads/how-fear-of-sardar-hari-singh-nalwa-forced-pashtuns-to-start-wearing-salwar.177048/

Edited by JatherdarSahib

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Hari.Singh.Nalwa.by.Gurbachan.Singh.Nayyar.

"FOREWORD

This present work brings out the unique military genius of Hari Singh Nalwa (1791-1837), the
celebrated General of the Sikh army. I warmly recommend the book to our readers. Hari Singh Nalwa was a
leader of outstanding qualities. He fought in almost all the important battles of the Lahore armies. The
campaigns of Multan, Kashmir, Hazara and Peshawar were of classical proportions. The sealing of Indian
border against invasions from across the western frontier was a unique contribution to history of India. I
hope this study will benefit not only professional historians but also lay readers.
Punjabi University, Joginder Singh Puar
Patiala Vice-Chancellor
....

"

http://www.gurmatveechar.com/books/English_Books/Hari.Singh.Nalwa.by.Gurbachan.Singh.Nayyar.(GurmatVeechar.com).pdf

Edited by JatherdarSahib

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Hari.Singh.Nalwa.by.Gurbachan.Singh.Nayyar.

"FOREWORD

This present work brings out the unique military genius of Hari Singh Nalwa (1791-1837), the
celebrated General of the Sikh army. I warmly recommend the book to our readers. Hari Singh Nalwa was a
leader of outstanding qualities. He fought in almost all the important battles of the Lahore armies. The
campaigns of Multan, Kashmir, Hazara and Peshawar were of classical proportions. The sealing of Indian
border against invasions from across the western frontier was a unique contribution to history of India. I
hope this study will benefit not only professional historians but also lay readers.
Punjabi University, Joginder Singh Puar
Patiala Vice-Chancellor
....

"

http://www.gurmatveechar.com/books/English_Books/Hari.Singh.Nalwa.by.Gurbachan.Singh.Nayyar.(GurmatVeechar.com).pdf

Vanit Nalwa, one of Hari Singh's descendants, used the family observer/genealogist's account of Nalwa (written while he was still alive) which resides in Haridwar. I will make enquiries if a transliterated volume of the said account is available. It's author is a certain Pandit Sitarama.

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Are there any traces of any Afghani culture in present day Pakistan? I do not mean any cross-cultural evolution due to close proximity but anything carried over from some military campaign or conquest etc.?

There is no such thing as "afghani"culture as we do not have any one single Indian culture. There are diff ethnic groups like Pashtuns, Hazaras, Uzbeks, etc. Are there any traces of Pashtun (pathan) culture in Pakistan? definitely yes, the NW Provinces, pathans are in majority and speak Pushtu.

Pathans are settled all over the region.before independence, we had so many areas dominated by pathans in modern day Indian punjab.

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As you can see below that is Pakistan, Peshawar and they are speaking Pashto. If you interact with some who come through diaspora, some can speak pashto but can't speak Urdu. I have read some that the whole wearing of Pajama was forced in practice by Hari Singh Nalwa he forced Afghans to wear pajama like women so that to teach them a lesson of trying to take the virtue of women and from that onwards it caught on as a fashion. It's possible the story may be unture. http://defence.pk/threads/how-fear-of-sardar-hari-singh-nalwa-forced-pashtuns-to-start-wearing-salwar.177048/

About Pathan culture/dominance in Pakistan, out of the areas on the eastern side of the Durand line, which demarcates Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Balochistan and Gilgit–Baltistan of northern and western Pakistan from eastern Afghanistan provinces; the first two are totally dominated by the pathans. significant presence of Pathans in Balochistan but, i could be wrong on this, not much in Gilgit area.

Pajama conjecture is trivial and does not have any substance to it. We, the punjabis, have borrowed too many of Pathan, Persian and Arab cultural traditions (dress, cuisine, language, religion, as we have been ruled by them for the longest among the modern day Indian states (nearly 1000 years). Few years of controlling a pathan outpost (Peshawar) would not have changed anything. forget the way pathans dress

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Wonder what the Wali based his letter on. There is bound to be some sort of folklore regarding Nalwa in Afghanistan. Amrinder Singh in his 'The Last Sunset' mentions that Akali-Nihung Phula SIngh has entered the regional folklore based in and around the area where he fell. Young mothers are encouraged to light a lamp in his memory to protect their children. Bound to be something similar for Nalwa. I will dig further but this can be a good field to look into.

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Vanit Nalwa, one of Hari Singh's descendants, used the family observer/genealogist's account of Nalwa (written while he was still alive) which resides in Haridwar. I will make enquiries if a transliterated volume of the said account is available. It's author is a certain Pandit Sitarama.

http://www.harisinghnalwa.com/aboutus.html

Vanit Nalwa heads EmPower-Consulting Psychologists. She conducts personal enrichment programmes for individuals and companies. Vanit taught psychology for over a decade at the University of Delhi (India) and at Assumption University (Thailand).

Vanit received a Ph.D. in Neuropsychology (1984) from the University of Delhi, India. She was a recipient of the Commonwealth Scholarship to do post-doctoral research at the University of Oxford, UK (1986). Vanit won a Fulbright Scholarship to train at the National Institutes of Health, Maryland, Bethesda, USA (1991). Her research work has been published in Indian and International scientific journals. She has authored two books, besides numerous articles in the popular press.

Vanit's training and experience as a psychologist and researcher encouraged her to foray into history. 'Hari Singh Nalwa — Champion of the Khalsaji' is the result of eight years of intense research. The book is based on archival records, Persian and Gurmukhi manuscripts, besides first-hand reports of nineteenth century travellers.

Vanit is a Trustee of the Hari Singh Nalwa Foundation Trust, a registered charity.

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=ULhgNexD92QC&printsec=frontcover&dq=vanit+nalwa&source=bl&ots=L36TIZFABn&sig=PE9LjhFNZCaayQvjXKmJDiz4GUw&hl=en&ei=8e3PS-2YMoy5rAfizZnSCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAUQ6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://www.amazon.com/Singh-Nalwa-Champion-Khalsaji-1791-1837/dp/8173047855

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Singh-Nalwa-Champion-Khalsa-1791-1837/dp/8173047855/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1398505753&sr=1-1&keywords=Hari+Singh+Nalwa+Champion+of+the+Khalsa

Same book in Punjabi:http://jsks.biz/hari-singh-nalwa-khalsa-ji-da-champion-vaneet-nalwa?filter_name=nalwa

From same distributor in English: http://jsks.biz/hari-singh-nalwa-champion-of-the-khalsa-vaneet-nalwa?filter_name=nalwa

Edited by JatherdarSahib

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http://jsks.biz/book-sikh-warrior-hari-singh-nalwa-by-surinder-singh-johar?filter_name=nalwa

Summary of 'Sikh Warrior Hari Singh Nalwa'

In the book is narrated the life stmy of the great Sikh wanior, Harl Singh Nalwa who was a pillar of the Khalsa Raj. Nalwa had a versatile brain, he took prompt decisions and never wavered. He always remembered God and the great Curu. He admired Guru Gobind Singh's war like qualities and worshipped the sword and the shield. He followed on the Guru's footsteps and faught against injustice and tyranny. Before going on any Campaign or jumping into a fray, he took Vak from Sri Guru Granth Sahib and performed ardasa. He firmly believed in the existence of one Supreme Being who is the Creator and the Destroyer. Ewn during the worst aisis, he never lost faith in God and always achieved his motive.

Nalwa was a terror for the Afghans. Even to this day, mothers of children tell them to behave otherwise Nalwa would come and take them away. The life story of such a great man will surely inspire the younger generations who are unaware of the deeds of Sikh Generals who laid down their lives for the establishment of the Khalsa Raj.

About The Author of 'Sikh Warrior Hari Singh Nalwa'

Surinder Singh Johar, is a Prolific writer. A post-paduate from Punjabi University, Johar is a well, known scholar, historian met a novaist. He has written several books in English and Punjabi. His contribution to the growth of Punjabi literature is outstanding.

johar's books on Sikh History and Religion in English, notably his biographies of Guru Nanak, Guru Cobind Singh and Hand Book on Sikhism were very well received and highly commmded by both the critics and literateurs.

Johar had a long stint in the Indian Information Service and after his retirement he has joined the journalistic profession but devotes most of his time in writing books on Sikh History and Religion.

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A few pages of this book have Hari Singh Nalwa mentioned according to the browseable index pages in the preview

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Return-King-Afghanistan-William-Dalrymple/dp/1408831597/ref=sr_1_fkmr0_3?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1398505753&sr=1-3-fkmr0&keywords=Hari+Singh+Nalwa+Champion+of+the+Khalsa

Return of a King: The Battle for Afghanistan

Book Description

Release Date: 30 Jan 2014
In the spring of 1839, the British invaded Afghanistan for the first time. Led by lancers in scarlet cloaks and plumed shakos, nearly 20,000 British and East India Company troops poured through the high mountain passes and re-established on the throne Shah Shuja ul-Mulk.
On the way in, the British faced little resistance. But after two years of occupation, the Afghan people rose in answer to the call for jihad and the country exploded into violent rebellion. The First Anglo-Afghan War ended in Britain's greatest military humiliation of the nineteenth century: an entire army of the then most powerful nation in the world ambushed in retreat and utterly routed by poorly equipped tribesmen.
Shortlisted for the Samuel Johnson Prize 2013, Return of a King is the definitive analysis of the First Afghan War, told through the lives of unforgettable characters on all sides and using for the first time contemporary Afghan accounts of the conflict. Prize-winning and bestselling historian William Dalrymple's masterful retelling of Britain's greatest imperial disaster is a powerful and important parable of colonial ambition and cultural collision, folly and hubris, for our times.

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There was a lengthy discussion between some pakistanis, indians and Sikhs on Nalwa one comment said Sikhs never had an empire, others take a narrative more alike to Sher or Doaba Sher etc.

http://defence.pk/threads/hari-singh-nalwa-one-of-the-best-commanders-ever.303904/

here is one Pakistani's view on Nalwa

This sounds like a Sikh wet fantasy.


Fact is, Sikhs were defeated by the British and then became British slaves.
Sikhs enlisted as soldiers in the British Army and fought for their British conquerors.


Sikhs invaded Afghanistan under the British flag and were slaughtered by Pashtuns in three wars.

The Sikhs never won a single Afghan war for the British.

Sikh soldiers were canon fodder for their British masters.


British Officer to Sikhs soldier : "Jump!!!"

Sikh Soldier: "How high Sir???"
Edited by JatherdarSahib

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There was a lengthy discussion between some pakistanis, indians and Sikhs on Nalwa one comment said Sikhs never had an empire, others take a narrative more alike to Sher or Doaba Sher etc.

http://defence.pk/threads/hari-singh-nalwa-one-of-the-best-commanders-ever.303904/

here is one Pakistani's view on Nalwa

What sort of narrative I take?

I completely agree that Sikhs had an empire under M Ranjit Singh. I laud personal bravery of Hari Singh Nalwa, Phula Singh and other Khalsa generals under M Ranjit. I would like to add here that the greatest general of M Ranjit was Mohkam Chand not HSN.

Yes, i have problems with accepting the hollow boasts about Sikhs conquering Afghanistan. Sikhs (and marathas under Raghunath Rao) did not cross Khyber pass which is the border post between Afghanistan and Pakistan today.

The claim about Afghans/Pushtuns wearing salwar kameez because of Hari Singh Nalwa is, sorry to say that, laughable. Afghans (various ethnic groups) ruled over Punjab for centuries but we never controlled Afghanistan after Hindus lost Kabul in the ninth century. It is also a myth that no foreigner has ever conquered Afghanistan.

PS: jathedar sahib i respect your scholarship but really disappointed to note that you have quoted dubious character like Sukhpreet Udhoke.

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http://jsks.biz/book-sikh-warrior-hari-singh-nalwa-by-surinder-singh-johar?filter_name=nalwa

Summary of 'Sikh Warrior Hari Singh Nalwa'

In the book is narrated the life stmy of the great Sikh wanior, Harl Singh Nalwa who was a pillar of the Khalsa Raj. Nalwa had a versatile brain, he took prompt decisions and never wavered. He always remembered God and the great Curu. He admired Guru Gobind Singh's war like qualities and worshipped the sword and the shield. He followed on the Guru's footsteps and faught against injustice and tyranny. Before going on any Campaign or jumping into a fray, he took Vak from Sri Guru Granth Sahib and performed ardasa. He firmly believed in the existence of one Supreme Being who is the Creator and the Destroyer. Ewn during the worst aisis, he never lost faith in God and always achieved his motive.

Nalwa was a terror for the Afghans. Even to this day, mothers of children tell them to behave otherwise Nalwa would come and take them away. The life story of such a great man will surely inspire the younger generations who are unaware of the deeds of Sikh Generals who laid down their lives for the establishment of the Khalsa Raj.

Nalwa was a terror for the Afghans. Even to this day, mothers of children tell them to behave otherwise Nalwa would come and take them away."

I have few pathan/hazara acquaintances and they have never heard of Nalwa's name. not sure whether they are feigning ignorance or it is another feelgood fable

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Nalwa was a terror for the Afghans. Even to this day, mothers of children tell them to behave otherwise Nalwa would come and take them away."

I have few pathan/hazara acquaintances and they have never heard of Nalwa's name. not sure whether they are feigning ignorance or it is another feelgood fable

I agree I have rarely known of Afghans who have known of nalwa and if they did that was from their own readings and not of folklore legends

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A few pages of this book have Hari Singh Nalwa mentioned according to the browseable index pages in the preview

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Return-King-Afghanistan-William-Dalrymple/dp/1408831597/ref=sr_1_fkmr0_3?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1398505753&sr=1-3-fkmr0&keywords=Hari+Singh+Nalwa+Champion+of+the+Khalsa

Return of a King: The Battle for Afghanistan

Book Description

Release Date: 30 Jan 2014
In the spring of 1839, the British invaded Afghanistan for the first time. Led by lancers in scarlet cloaks and plumed shakos, nearly 20,000 British and East India Company troops poured through the high mountain passes and re-established on the throne Shah Shuja ul-Mulk.
On the way in, the British faced little resistance. But after two years of occupation, the Afghan people rose in answer to the call for jihad and the country exploded into violent rebellion. The First Anglo-Afghan War ended in Britain's greatest military humiliation of the nineteenth century: an entire army of the then most powerful nation in the world ambushed in retreat and utterly routed by poorly equipped tribesmen.
Shortlisted for the Samuel Johnson Prize 2013, Return of a King is the definitive analysis of the First Afghan War, told through the lives of unforgettable characters on all sides and using for the first time contemporary Afghan accounts of the conflict. Prize-winning and bestselling historian William Dalrymple's masterful retelling of Britain's greatest imperial disaster is a powerful and important parable of colonial ambition and cultural collision, folly and hubris, for our times.

Quoting from the book 'Return of a King: The Battle for Afghanistan' by William Dalrymple,on page 97, Dalrymple has quoted from Siraj ulTwarikh "In the heat of the furious combat, Akbar Khan encountered Hari Singh. Without recognising each other, they exchanged blows and after much thrusting and parrying, Akbar Khan won out, knocking Hari Singh to the ground,and killing him. With their commander dead and the army of Islam rolling towards them like a tide in flood, the Sikhs abandoned the field. They were pursued by the sardars aas far as Jamrud Fort where they barricaded themselves inside"

To read about the post Jamurd battle account, i think the best source is:

Cabool: A Personal Narrative of a Journey To, and Residence in that City, in ...

By Sir Alexander Burnes The whole book is available on Google Books for free.

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- What makes Hari Singh's conquest of Afghanistan so different from prior conquests lead by the Macedonians and the Marathas?
I don't know why this idea of a conquest of Afghanistan persists?
- What political, social and religious factors assisted Nalwa in consolidating his prowess in Afghanistan?

He consolidated his power at a time when Sikh confidence and resources were at their peak. In addition to this, Sikh victory and dominance had caused non-Sikhs to join their standard too. I'd say M. Ranjit Singh's liberal policies towards Muslims in his kingdom and Sikh strength took the wind out of the endeavours of Panjab based jihadists. I'm sure the Muslim experiences in Panjab with an emerging and proficient Khalsa deterred them from being too enthusiastic about challenging Sikhs. Basically he had a relatively stable base to operate from.

- What military factors contributed towards Nalwa's victory in Afghanistan?

An army trained by Napoleonic generals and Sikh valour and experience.

- How does NATO'S campaign differ from Nalwa's?

Logistically, carrying out a war so far from home. A dubious ally in Pakistan. Completely different mindsets between whites and Afghans - less so between Panjabis and Afghans. There was also a religious dimension in Nalwa's time between both parties whereas Nato can NEVER be considered to be a 'Christian' organisation.
-What elements are similar in both historic and modern campaigns?

Very little in my opinion. Sikhs were genuinely defending themselves, Nato is sticking its nose in to contain a monster it helped create to fight Ruskies.

-If anything what lesson can we derive from both Hari Singh Nalwa's and NATO'S campaigns?

Military prowess can be lost and gained at an surprisingly sudden pace. Sikhs are a shadow of their former selves. NATO is opportunist but cowardly, look how they dither in facing Russia over the Ukraine.

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