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Sri Charitropakhyan Sahib jee Series - Charitar #98

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Chritar 98: Tale of Heer Ranjha

 

ਦੋਹਰਾ ॥

Dohira

ਚੰਦ੍ਰਭਗਾ ਸਰਿਤਾ ਨਿਕਟਿ ਰਾਂਝਨ ਨਾਮਾ ਜਾਟ ॥

On the banks of the river Chenab, a Jat Peasant, named Ranjha used to live.

ਜੋ ਅਬਲਾ ਨਿਰਖੈ ਤਿਸੈ ਜਾਤ ਸਦਨ ਪਰਿ ਖਾਟ ॥੧॥

Any damsel who saw him, would get mad to have love bond with him.(1)

ਚੌਪਈ ॥

Chaupaee

ਮੋਹਤ ਤਿਹ ਤ੍ਰਿਯ ਨੈਨ ਨਿਹਾਰੇ ॥

ਜਨੁ ਸਾਵਕ ਸਾਯਕ ਕੇ ਮਾਰੇ ॥

His looks had luring effect like the sight of a deer for the hunter.

ਚਿਤ ਮੈ ਅਧਿਕ ਰੀਝ ਕੇ ਰਹੈ ॥

ਰਾਂਝਨ ਰਾਂਝਨ ਮੁਖ ਤੇ ਕਹੈ ॥੨॥

They would yearn for him, and always recited ‘Ranjha, Ranjha.’(2)

ਕਰਮ ਕਾਲ ਤਹ ਐਸੋ ਭਯੋ ॥

ਤੌਨੇ ਦੇਸ ਕਾਲ ਪਰ ਗਯੋ ॥

There was time when the famine had spread over the country.

ਜਿਯਤ ਨ ਕੌ ਨਰ ਬਚਿਯੋ ਨਗਰ ਮੈ ॥

ਸੋ ਉਬਰਿਯੋ ਜਾ ਕੇ ਧਨੁ ਘਰ ਮੈ ॥੩॥

Lot of people did not escape death and the only ones who were wealthy survived.(3)

ਚਿਤ੍ਰ ਦੇਵਿ ਇਕ ਰਾਨਿ ਨਗਰ ਮੈ ॥

ਰਾਂਝਾ ਏਕ ਪੂਤ ਤਿਹ ਘਰ ਮੈ ॥

In the city a Rani named Chitardevi, there used to live who had this son named Ranjah.

ਤਾ ਕੇ ਔਰ ਨ ਬਚਿਯੋ ਕੋਈ ॥

ਮਾਇ ਪੂਤ ਵੈ ਬਾਚੇ ਦੋਈ ॥੪॥

Except those two, the mother and the son, none had survived.(4)

ਰਨਿਯਹਿ ਭੂਖ ਅਧਿਕ ਜਬ ਜਾਗੀ ॥

ਤਾ ਕੌ ਬੇਚਿ ਮੇਖਲਾ ਸਾਜੀ ॥

When the hunger tormented the woman, she thought of a plan.

ਨਿਤਿ ਪੀਸਨ ਪਰ ਦ੍ਵਾਰੇ ਜਾਵੈ ॥

ਜੂਠ ਚੂਨ ਚੌਕਾ ਚੁਨਿ ਖਾਵੈ ॥੫॥

She would go to other houses to grind flour, and the left-over there, she would bring home to eat.(5)

ਐਸੇ ਹੀ ਭੂਖਨ ਮਰਿ ਗਈ ॥

ਪੁਨਿ ਬਿਧਿ ਤਹਾ ਬ੍ਰਿਸਟਿ ਅਤਿ ਦਈ ॥

ਸੂਕੇ ਭਏ ਹਰੇ ਜਨੁ ਸਾਰੇ ॥

ਬਹੁਰਿ ਜੀਤ ਕੇ ਬਜੇ ਨਗਾਰੇ ॥੬॥

ਤਹਾ ਏਕ ਰਾਂਝਾ ਹੀ ਉਬਰਿਯੋ ॥

ਔਰ ਲੋਗ ਸਭ ਤਹ ਕੋ ਮਰਿਯੋ ॥

This way she eliminated her hunger and, then, suddenly, Almighty

ਰਾਂਝੋ ਜਾਟ ਹੇਤ ਤਿਨ ਪਾਰਿਯੋ ॥

ਪੂਤ ਭਾਵ ਤੇ ਤਾਹਿ ਜਿਯਾਰਿਯੋ ॥੭॥

Had a benevolent observation; all that was dry became green(7)

ਪੂਤ ਜਾਟ ਕੋ ਸਭ ਕੋ ਜਾਨੈ ॥

ਤਿਸ ਤੇ ਕੋਊ ਨ ਰਹਿਯੋ ਪਛਾਨੈ ॥

All, now, realised that he (Ranjha) was the son of a Jat and no one realised his real identity (that he was the son of a Rani).

ਐਸੇ ਕਾਲ ਬੀਤ ਕੈ ਗਯੋ ॥

ਤਾ ਮੈ ਮਦਨ ਦਮਾਮੋ ਦਯੋ ॥੮॥

The famine subsided and the age of sensuality over powered.(8)

ਮਹਿਖੀ ਚਾਰਿ ਨਿਤਿ ਗ੍ਰਿਹ ਆਵੈ ॥

ਰਾਂਝਾ ਅਪਨੋ ਨਾਮ ਸਦਾਵੈ ॥

He used to come back in the evening after grazing the cattle and became known as Ranjah.

ਪੂਤ ਜਾਟ ਕੋ ਤਿਹ ਸਭ ਜਾਨੈ ॥

ਰਾਜਪੂਤੁ ਕੈ ਕੋ ਪਹਿਚਾਨੈ ॥੯॥

Every body thought him to be the son of a Jat and none acknowledged him as the son of a Raja.(9)

ਇਤੀ ਬਾਤ ਰਾਂਝਾ ਕੀ ਕਹੀ ॥

ਅਬ ਚਲਿ ਬਾਤ ਹੀਰ ਪੈ ਰਹੀ ॥

Thus far we have talked about Ranjha, now we consider Heer.

ਤੁਮ ਕੌ ਤਾ ਕੀ ਕਥਾ ਸੁਨਾਊ ॥

ਤਾ ਤੇ ਤੁਮਰੋ ਹ੍ਰਿਦੈ ਸਿਰਾਊ ॥੧੦॥

I will narrate you their story to delight your mind.(10)

ਅੜਿਲ ॥

Arril

ਇੰਦ੍ਰ ਰਾਇ ਕੇ ਨਗਰ ਅਪਸਰਾ ਇਕ ਰਹੈ ॥

In the city ofInder Rai, a damsel lived,

ਮੈਨ ਕਲਾ ਤਿਹ ਨਾਮ ਸਕਲ ਜਗ ਯੌ ਕਹੈ ॥

Whose fame was spread all over the world.

ਤਾ ਕੌ ਰੂਪ ਨਰੇਸ ਜੋ ਕੋਊ ਨਿਹਾਰਹੀ ॥

Any Raja who saw her would get pierced with the Cupid’s arrows.

ਹੋ ਗਿਰੈ ਧਰਨਿ ਪਰ ਝੂਮਿ ਮੈਨ ਸਰ ਮਾਰਹੀ ॥੧੧॥

Would fell flat on ground.(11)

ਚੌਪਈ ॥

Chaupaee

ਤੌਨੇ ਸਭਾ ਕਪਿਲ ਮੁਨਿ ਆਯੋ ॥

ਔਸਰ ਜਹਾ ਮੈਨਕਾ ਪਾਯੋ ॥

At that place, once the ascetic Kapil Munni had come and seen (the damsel) Maneka,

ਤਿਹ ਲਖਿ ਮੁਨਿ ਬੀਰਜ ਗਿਰਿ ਗਯੋ ॥

ਚਪਿ ਚਿਤ ਮੈ ਸ੍ਰਾਪਤ ਤਿਹ ਭਯੋ ॥੧੨॥

On her sight, his semen dripped down and he pronounced a curse,(12)

ਤੁਮ ਗਿਰਿ ਮਿਰਤ ਲੋਕ ਮੈ ਪਰੋ ॥

ਜੂਨਿ ਸਯਾਲ ਜਾਟ ਕੀ ਧਰੋ ॥

‘You go to the domain of humanity and take birth into the family of Sial Jat.’

ਹੀਰ ਆਪਨੋ ਨਾਮ ਸਦਾਵੋ ॥

ਜੂਠ ਕੂਠ ਤੁਰਕਨ ਕੀ ਖਾਵੋ ॥੧੩॥

‘You assume the name of Heer and devour the food at the household of Turks (Muslims).’(13)

ਦੋਹਰਾ ॥

Dohira

ਤਬ ਅਬਲਾ ਕੰਪਤਿ ਭਈ ਤਾ ਕੇ ਪਰਿ ਕੈ ਪਾਇ ॥

Then the damsel, shaking, fell upon the feet of Munni and requested,

ਕ੍ਯੋਹੂ ਹੋਇ ਉਧਾਰ ਮਮ ਸੋ ਦਿਜ ਕਹੋ ਉਪਾਇ ॥੧੪॥

‘Tell me some resolve so that I can escape this agony.’(14)

ਚੌਪਈ ॥

Chaupaee

ਇੰਦ੍ਰ ਸੁ ਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਮੰਡਲ ਜਬ ਜੈਹੈ ॥

ਰਾਂਝਾ ਅਪਨੋ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਹੈ ਹੈ ॥

(Reply) ‘When god Indra will go to themundane world, he will call himself Ranjha.

ਤੋ ਸੌ ਅਧਿਕ ਪ੍ਰੀਤਿ ਉਪਜਾਵੈ ॥

ਅਮਰਵਤੀ ਬਹੁਰਿ ਤੁਹਿ ਲ੍ਯਾਵੈ ॥੧੫॥

‘He will intensively fall in love with you and will bring you back to Amrawati (domain of emancipation).(15)

ਦੋਹਰਾ ॥

Dohira

ਜੂਨਿ ਜਾਟ ਕੀ ਤਿਨ ਧਰੀ ਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਮੰਡਲ ਮੈ ਆਇ ॥

She took birth in the household of a Jat.

ਚੂਚਕ ਕੇ ਉਪਜੀ ਭਵਨ ਹੀਰ ਨਾਮ ਧਰਵਾਇ ॥੧੬॥

She appeared in the house of Choochak and called herself as Heer.(16)

ਚੌਪਈ ॥

Chaupaee

ਇਸੀ ਭਾਂਤਿ ਸੋ ਕਾਲ ਬਿਹਾਨ੍ਯੋ ॥

ਬੀਤਯੋ ਬਰਖ ਏਕ ਦਿਨ ਜਾਨ੍ਯੋ ॥

The time passed and the years went by,

ਬਾਲਾਪਨੋ ਛੂਟਿ ਜਬ ਗਯੋ ॥

ਜੋਬਨ ਆਨਿ ਦਮਾਮੋ ਦਯੋ ॥੧੭॥

The childhood was abandoned and the drums of the yoUth began to play.(l7)

ਰਾਂਝਾ ਚਾਰਿ ਮਹਿਖਿਯਨ ਆਵੈ ॥

ਤਾ ਕੋ ਹੇਰਿ ਹੀਰ ਬਲਿ ਜਾਵੈ ॥

When Ranjha would come back after grazing the cattle, Heer would go crazy,

ਤਾ ਸੌ ਅਧਿਕ ਨੇਹੁ ਉਪਜਾਯੋ ॥

ਭਾਂਤਿ ਭਾਂਤਿ ਸੌ ਮੋਹ ਬਢਾਯੋ ॥੧੮॥

She depicted intense love towards him and showered many affections.(18)

ਦੋਹਰਾ ॥

Dohira

ਖਾਤ ਪੀਤ ਬੈਠਤ ਉਠਤ ਸੋਵਤ ਜਾਗਤ ਨਿਤਿ ॥

Eating, drinking, sitting, standing, sleeping and awake,

ਕਬਹੂੰ ਨ ਬਿਸਰੈ ਚਿਤ ਤੇ ਸੁੰਦਰ ਦਰਸ ਨਮਿਤ ॥੧੯॥

All the time she would not keep him out of her mind.(19)

ਹੀਰ ਬਾਚ ॥

Heer Talk

ਸਵੈਯਾ ॥

ਬਾਹਰ ਜਾਉ ਤੌ ਬਾਹਰ ਹੀ ਗ੍ਰਿਹ ਆਵਤ ਆਵਤ ਸੰਗ ਲਗੇਹੀ ॥

‘If he goes out, I go out too.

ਜੌ ਹਠਿ ਬੈਠਿ ਰਹੋ ਘਰ ਮੈ ਪਿਯ ਪੈਠਿ ਰਹੈ ਹਿਯ ਮੈ ਪਹਿ ਲੇਹੀ ॥

‘If he stays at home I feel I am sitting with him.

ਨੀਂਦ ਹਮੈ ਨਕਵਾਨੀ ਕਰੀ ਛਿਨ ਹੀ ਛਿਨ ਰਾਮ ਸਖੀ ਸੁਪਨੇਹੀ ॥

‘He has snatched my sleep away and in the sleep he does not let me

ਜਾਗਤ ਸੋਵਤ ਰਾਤਹੂੰ ਦ੍ਯੋਸ ਕਹੂੰ ਮੁਹਿ ਰਾਂਝਨ ਚੈਨ ਨ ਦੇਹੀ ॥੨੦॥

Alone. ‘Day in and day out, Ranjha does not let me be in serenity.’(20)

ਚੌਪਈ ॥

Chaupaee

ਰਾਂਝਨ ਰਾਂਝਨ ਸਦਾ ਉਚਾਰੈ ॥

ਸੋਵਤ ਜਾਗਤ ਤਹਾ ਸੰਭਾਰੈ ॥

ਬੈਠਤ ਉਠਤ ਚਲਤ ਹੂੰ ਸੰਗਾ ॥

ਤਾਹੀ ਕੌ ਜਾਨੈ ਕੈ ਅੰਗਾ ॥੨੧॥

ਕਾਹੂੰ ਕੋ ਜੋ ਹੀਰ ਨਿਹਾਰੈ ॥

ਰਾਂਝਨ ਹੀ ਰਿਦ ਬੀਚ ਬਿਚਾਰੈ ॥

She would recite ‘Ranjhan, Ranjhan’ all the time,

ਐਸੀ ਪ੍ਰੀਤਿ ਪ੍ਰਿਆ ਕੀ ਲਾਗੀ ॥

ਨੀਂਦ ਭੂਖ ਤਾ ਕੀ ਸਭ ਭਾਗੀ ॥੨੨॥

Her love was so much intensified that she lost all her appetite.(22)

ਰਾਂਝਨ ਹੀ ਕੇ ਰੂਪ ਵਹ ਭਈ ॥

ਜ੍ਯੋ ਮਿਲਿ ਬੂੰਦਿ ਬਾਰਿ ਮੋ ਗਈ ॥

She merged into Ranjha like a drop of water into the water itself.

ਜੈਸੇ ਮ੍ਰਿਗ ਮ੍ਰਿਗਯਾ ਕੋ ਲਹੇ ॥

ਹੋਤ ਬਧਾਇ ਬਿਨਾ ਹੀ ਗਹੇ ॥੨੩॥

She became an epitome of deer who becomes a slave without being tied up.(23)

ਦੋਹਰਾ ॥

Dohira

ਜੈਸੇ ਲਕਰੀ ਆਗ ਮੈ ਪਰਤ ਕਹੂੰ ਤੇ ਆਇ ॥

She became a piece of wood, which falls into the fire,

ਪਲਕ ਦ੍ਵੈਕ ਤਾ ਮੈ ਰਹੈ ਬਹੁਰਿ ਆਗ ਹ੍ਵੈ ਜਾਇ ॥੨੪॥

And remains as wood for a few moments only and then becomes the fire itself. (24)

ਹਰਿ ਜਾ ਅਸਿ ਐਸੇ ਸੁਨ੍ਯੋ ਕਰਤ ਏਕ ਤੇ ਦੋਇ ॥

ਬਿਰਹ ਬਢਾਰਨਿ ਜੋ ਬਧੇ ਏਕ ਦੋਇ ਤੇ ਹੋਇ ॥੨੫॥

ਰਾਂਝਨ ਹੀਰ ਪ੍ਰੇਮ ਮੈ ਰਹੈ ਏਕ ਹੀ ਹੋਇ ॥

The love of Ranjha and Heer became synonymous of oneness.

ਕਹਿਬੇ ਕੌ ਤਨ ਏਕ ਹੀ ਲਹਿਬੇ ਕੋ ਤਨ ਦੋਇ ॥੨੬॥

Although they were two bodies, they were one (in soul).(26)

ਚੌਪਈ ॥

Chaupaee

ਐਸੀ ਪ੍ਰੀਤਿ ਪ੍ਰਿਯਾ ਕੀ ਭਈ ॥

ਸਿਗਰੀ ਬਿਸਰਿ ਤਾਹਿ ਸੁਧਿ ਗਈ ॥

Inbueded in love, she was totally engrossed in the passion for her sweetheart.

ਰਾਂਝਾ ਜੂ ਕੇ ਰੂਪ ਉਰਝਾਨੀ ॥

ਲੋਕ ਲਾਜ ਤਜਿ ਭਈ ਦਿਵਾਨੀ ॥੨੭॥

Entangled in Ranjha’s demean our she began to disregarded the normal social etiquettes.(27)

ਤਬ ਚੂਚਕ ਇਹ ਭਾਂਤਿ ਬਿਚਾਰੀ ॥

ਯਹ ਕੰਨ੍ਯਾ ਨਹਿ ਜਿਯਤ ਹਮਾਰੀ ॥

(Then) Choochak (the father) thought his daughter wouldn’t survive.

ਅਬ ਹੀ ਯਹ ਖੇਰਾ ਕੋ ਦੀਜੈ ॥

ਯਾ ਮੈ ਤਨਿਕ ਢੀਲ ਨਹਿ ਕੀਜੈ ॥੨੮॥

She should immediately be endowed to Khere (in-laws) without any delay.(28)

ਖੇਰਹਿ ਬੋਲ ਤੁਰਤੁ ਤਿਹ ਦਯੋ ॥

ਰਾਂਝਾ ਅਤਿਥ ਹੋਇ ਸੰਗ ਗਯੋ ॥

Instantly, a messenger was sent and Ranjha accompanied disguised as an ascetic.

ਮਾਗਤ ਭੀਖ ਘਾਤ ਜਬ ਪਾਯੋ ॥

ਲੈ ਤਾ ਕੋ ਸੁਰ ਲੋਕ ਸਿਧਾਯੋ ॥੨੯॥

During his begging, when he found opportunity, he took Heer and departed for the domain of death.(29)

ਰਾਂਝਾ ਹੀਰ ਮਿਲਤ ਜਬ ਭਏ ॥

ਚਿਤ ਕੇ ਸਕਲ ਸੋਕ ਮਿਟਿ ਗਏ ॥

When Ranjha and Heer had met, they had found bliss.

ਹਿਯਾ ਕੀ ਅਵਧਿ ਬੀਤਿ ਜਬ ਗਈ ॥

ਬਾਟਿ ਦੁਹੂੰ ਸੁਰ ਪੁਰ ਕੀ ਲਈ ॥੩੦॥

All their afflictions were eliminated and they departed for the heavens.(30)

ਦੋਹਰਾ ॥

Dohira

ਰਾਂਝਾ ਭਯੋ ਸੁਰੇਸ ਤਹ ਭਈ ਮੈਨਕਾ ਹੀਰ ॥

Ranjha turned into god Indra and Heer became Maneka,

ਯਾ ਜਗ ਮੈ ਗਾਵਤ ਸਦਾ ਸਭ ਕਬਿ ਕੁਲ ਜਸ ਧੀਰ ॥੩੧॥

And all the revered poets sang the songs in their praise.(31)(1)

ਇਤਿ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਚਰਿਤ੍ਰ ਪਖ੍ਯਾਨੇ ਤ੍ਰਿਯਾ ਚਰਿਤ੍ਰੇ ਮੰਤ੍ਰੀ ਭੂਪ ਸੰਬਾਦੇ ਅਠਾਨਵੋ ਚਰਿਤ੍ਰ ਸਮਾਪਤਮ ਸਤੁ ਸੁਭਮ ਸਤੁ ॥੯੮॥੧੮੨੮॥ਅਫਜੂੰ॥

Ninety-eighth Parable of Auspicious Chritars Conversation of the Raja and the Minister, Completed with Benediction. (98)(1828)

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On the face of it, this seems like a straightforward love story, just as the legend is. Two people who couldn't live without each other prefered to take the risk of separation in the afterlife rather than suffer separation in this life.

Two things made me a little curious. One is that ranjha is in truth, the son of royalty, yet because of events over which he had no control he was left as a shepherd in a jat family. I'm not sure what bearing this has on the overall story. Maybe it could be as history has often shown - paupers elevated to kingship and vice versa. That nothing is guaranteed in life.

 

The other thing was wasn't it more than a little unfair that the Upsara was given a curse over something she had little control over? It wasn't Menaka who lost control but Kapil Muni. Why should he then blame her for his loss of control?

Could it be because he was a Brahman/Rishi whereas she was only an apsara? (A dancer in Indar-lok).

 

In the end I was left with the notion of how true love doesn't conquer all, but is still very powerful indeed.

 

 

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Very interesting!

The story of Heer Ranjha makes an appearance. 

So the chariters draw from many sources including current folklore. 

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Notice the shift from the last bir-rasi chariter to this. The last one closed with a point about punishment. I was wondering if this would be immediately expanded upon in the next chariter - and the answer is no.

And yes Chatanga, I notice this one doesn't really deviate from the usually conception of this as true love. 

I wonder if the identification of Heer Ranjha with Maneka and Indra (in previous life) is something that is in the traditional folklore?

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1 hour ago, chatanga1 said:

I have never heard anything so far about Maneka and Indra.

See, then the Heer-Ranjha tale takes a serious twist here, and introduces the notion of rebirths, and that of devtay and devis no less! 

I was searching for links in the tales, and if you think about it, this chariter links to the previous one where Chandika is introduced, because in the usual Chandi narration (if I'm not mistaken) it's actually Indra that seeks Chandi's assistance against the asuras. And here in this tale, we have Indra reincarnated as Ranjha. 

So that adds a whole new dimension to the folktale.  

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Good find Dal. i had totally forgotten about the the story of Lord Indra and Kapil Muni. There was a connection between them both, borne out of jealousy on Indra'a part.

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1 hour ago, chatanga1 said:

Good find Dal. i had totally forgotten about the the story of Lord Indra and Kapil Muni. There was a connection between them both, borne out of jealousy on Indra'a part.

Have you heard of Kapil Muni before? I haven't. 

What have you heard about the connection between these two Chatanga? 

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1 hour ago, dalsingh101 said:

Have you heard of Kapil Muni before? I haven't. 

What have you heard about the connection between these two Chatanga? 

I heard their story when I was reading "Ramayana". The forefathers of Shri Ram Chander did an asmedh yug, and the horse was let loose. Lord Indra took the horse and hid it in Kapil Muni's ashram. When the soldiers of the the house of Ikshvasu came to look for it they disrupted Kapil Muni's penance and Kapil Muni at the time with his shakti burnt all the soldiers to death. He knew Indra had hidden the horse in his (Kapil Muni's) ashram but I can't remember what happened further. I will have to look in my copies of Ramayana tomorrow to see if I can find anything.

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Just to add an important point:

The version of the Heer Ranjha tale that became the dominant one is the one by Waris Shah written around 1766 AD. So this is a good few decades after the above chariter was composed. 

So this chariter may take an older version of the Heer-Ranjha tale (i.e. a non Waris Shah one) as its source, so maybe this version included the Indra and Maneka link within or this was introduced into this version for whatever reason(s).

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