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32 Qualities of an Ideal Woman

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Guest Maha_Pavitar

Vaaheguroo Jee ka khalsa, Vaaheguroo jee kee fateh

I hope this is the right section to post this question..In my ongoing quest to become a good woman, I'm always filled with joy with what bani tells us. Sweetness, humility, forgiveness, guardians of the faith..only women can have such strong qualities. Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha has listed 32 qualites of an ideal woman (I'm guessing in Mahan Kosh) including: beauty, honesty, cheefulness, love of her husband, the arts, purity of mind, and so on...

Could someone please find these 32 qualities and comment more on this topc. A good woman can create an environment where only joy will prevail, I truly believe that...

"Should the woman make embroidery of the holy Name

and wear such a frock,

Would she be known as a true wife.

Should she look after her home, taste not evil,

Would she have her Lord's love." Panna 1171

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I think this is more to do with men & women, because Guru Ji describes the human-race as soul-brides. The Husband is always described as being the lord.

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I think this does refer to women in the context of being householders/wives to their husbands i.e their human/male partners. Guru is saying aside from cooking,cleaning,the tradition of sati,women having to worship their husbands as lords (as hinduism implies, and islam implements in the koran); that a true wife/woman has firm beleif in god,etc.

There is quite a few shabads on women and men in the context of relationships; and not all of them (unless u want them to i.e interpretation) refer to akal purkh.

This is the beauty of bani; the gurus used metaphors and analogoies (beautiful poetical skills) to put across points..another example is when guru ji defines a true muslim and a true hindu.

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Guest Maha_Pavitar

Bani is so amazing..it gives all life answers right there in your hands..

This list of 32 qualities was indeed in reference to an ideal woman..still wondering if anyone knows what these qualities are..

:)

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Guru is saying aside from cooking,cleaning,the tradition of sati,women having to worship their husbands as lords (as hinduism implies, and islam implements in the koran); that a true wife/woman has firm beleif in god,etc.

This is indeed interesting when compared with the quotation in the Damdami Taksal Rehit Nama for a wife to treat her husband as "parmaesur" (i.e. the good old "pati-paemeasur" ideal), a point which I know is also mentioned by the Niskham Sevak Jatha during their sermons...

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Beauty.

Cleanliness.

Shyness.

Cleverness.

Education.

Husband worship.

Service.

Kindness.

Truth.

Soft-spoken/sweet-tongued.

Happiness.

Humbleness.

Guileless.

Unity.

Patience.

Religiosity.

Brevity.

Liberality.

Seriousness.

Endeavor.

Ready to learn from others (Gun-grahee).

Bravery.

Music.

Poetry.

Painting.

Medicine.

Kitchen.

Tailoring.

Housekeeping.

Respect for elders.

Hospitality.

Raising children.

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Guest Maha_Pavitar

wow.. :D thank you so much for this veerji..this has made my day! Looks like I better start working on these ;)

On a more serious note though..in a way this is training for everyone's relationship with their beloved, in essence we (women AND men) are all his brides after all.

I'd love to work through each of these qualities via bani, sakhis, histrorical accounts, psychology, other texts..modern society..etc..is the sangat up for this? :)

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A Question to Amrit Veer jee.

What do you mean with -

'Husband worship. '

Please elaborate

bhull chukk maaf

GurFateh

The 32 Qualities of an ideal woman are not given by me. I just told what, traditionally, the 32 qualities are. Thus, it does not matter what I mean by 'Husband worship'.

If you want me to explain something from the Gurbanee/Bhaartee (Indian) point of view, please let me know. I will try to.

Before someone could blame me of hiding the full information on 32 qualities of an ideal woman, I would like to tell that there are other 32 qualities from physical point of view. And I find myself unable to describe them.

Regards.

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"Sateeyaan Eh Na Aakheeyan Jo Marheeyaan Lag Jalan.

Naanak Sateeyaan Janeeyan Je Birahe Chot Maran".

Those, who burn themselves along with their husbands' corpses, are not called the 'Satee'. O Naanak, they are known as 'Satee', who die from the shock of separation). (Sri Guru Granth Sahib, page 787).

"Bhee So Sateeyaan Jaaneeyan Seel Santokh Rahan. Sevan Saayeen Aapna Nit Uthh Sammalan".

(They are also known as 'Satee', who abide in modesty and contentment. They serve their husband and contemplate him getting up daily). (Sri Guru Granth Sahib, page 787).

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lol i aint worshippin ma husband...too bad 4 him...

"Eeyaanarheeye, Maanarha Kaaye Kareh. Aapanarhai Ghar Har Rango Kee Na Maaneh. Sahu Nerhai Dhan Kamaleeye Baahar Kiya Dhhondhheh. Bhai Keeyaan Deh Slaayeeyaan Nainee Bhaav Ka Kar Seengaaro. Taa Sohaagan Jaaneeyai Laagee Ja Sahu Dhare Piyaaro. 1. Eeyaanee Baalee Kiya Kare Ja Dhan Kant Na Bhaavai. Karan Plaah Kare Bahutere Sa Dhan Mahal Na Paavai. Vin Karma Kichh Paayeeyai Naahee Je Bahutera Dhaavai. Labh Lobh Ahankaar Kee Maatee Maaya Maahe Samaanee. Inee Baateen Sahu Paayeeyai Naahee Bhayee Kaaman Eeyaanee. 2. Jaaye Puchhoh Sohaagan Vaahai Kinee Baateen Sahu Paayeeyai. Jo Kichh Kare So Bhala Kar Maaneeyai Hikmat Hukam Chukaayeeyai. Jaa Kai Prem Pdaarth Paayeeyai Tau Charnee Chit Laayeeyai. Sahu Kahai So Keejai Tan Mano Deejai Aisa Parmal Laayeeyai. Ev Kahainh Sohaagnee Bhaine Inee Baateen Sahu Paayeeyai. 3. Aap Gavaayeeyai Taan Sahu Paayeeyai Aur Kaisee Chaturaayee. Sahu Nadar Kar Dekhai So Din Lekhai Kaaman Nau Nidh Paayee. Aapne Kant Piyaaree Sa Sohaagan Naanak Sa Sabhraayee. Aise Rang Raatee Sahaj Kee Maatee Ahnis Bhaaye Samaanee. Sundar Saaye Saroop Bichchkhan Kaheeyai Sa Siyaanee".

(O ignorant! Why are you so proud? Within the home of your own self, why do you not enjoy the Love of your Lord? The Husband is near, O foolish! What are you searching outside? Apply the Fear of God as the mascara to eyes, and make the Love your ornament. Then, one shall be known as a devoted bride, when the husband enshrines love. 1.

What can the silly young girl do, if bride is not pleasing to her husband? She may plead and implore so many times, but still, such a bride shall not obtain the mansion. Without the karma of good deeds, nothing is obtained, although one may run around frantically. She is intoxicated with greed, pride and egotism, and engrossed in Maya. Husband cannot be obtained in these ways; the young bride is so foolish! 2.

Go and ask the devoted brides, how can one obtain the husband? Whatever husband does, accept that as good; do away with your own cleverness and self-will. By His Love, true wealth is obtained; link your consciousness to His feet. As husband directs, so one must act; surrender your body and mind to Him, and apply this perfume to you. So speaks the devoted brides, O sister; in this way, the Husband is obtained. 3.

Give up your selfhood, and so obtain your Husband; what other clever tricks are of any use? When the Husband looks upon the bride with His Gracious Glance, that day is historic - the bride obtains the nine treasures. She, who is loved by her Husband, is the devoted bride; O Nanak, she is the queen of all. Thus she is imbued with His Love, intoxicated with delight; day and night, she is absorbed in His Love. She is beautiful, glorious and brilliant; she is known as truly wise. 4. ) (Sri Guru Granth Sahib, page 722).

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Thats what i said. This is my understanding of this shabad.

"Should the woman make embroidery of the holy Name

and wear such a frock,

If u sew Naam and wear it (Recite Naam and Remeber God with your heart).

Would she be known as a true wife.

You will be known as a true Soul-Bride

Should she look after her home, taste not evil,

If you look after your Body (Home) and taste no evil thoughts,

Would she have her Lord's love." Panna 1171

You will have Waheguru's Love.

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Sort of ...Some characteristics mentioned in Amrit's post are true infact in such a relation, however I am as to confused what is the "husband" suppose to do for his "wife", other than please.

"Whatever husband does, accept that as good; do away with your own cleverness and self-will. "

If this is saying directly - that whatever he does, just accept it...and get rid of your thoughts/ideas(cleverlness, self-will) ...then I again do not agree. Perhaps, you could please infer these in simple terms, as I don't want to misquote or misunderstand.

In addition, please paraphrase or summarize what the following quote is trying to get across ,"By His Love, true wealth is obtained; link your consciousness to His feet."

"As husband directs, so one must act; surrender your body and mind to Him, and apply this perfume to you."

I don't know, I think westernised, but this is this basically saying you should do what he tells you to do. If this is the case, then I do not agree. Please explain, before I voice any other opinions.

If you could clarify the above, it would be much appreciated...as I am not whole-heartedly agreeing and that is if I have even got the right message through the text.

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Guest Maha_Pavitar

Again these 32 qualities are from Mahan Kosh (I believe) and mentioned in bani many times, not something Amrit veerji created :)

"Whatever husband does, accept that as good; do away with your own cleverness and self-will. "

That is referring to us (the soul-bride) in relation to our beloved Akal (the husband lord). To become gurmukhs, we have to do away with cleverness and self-will..this is the mark of a 'manmukh'. Accepting whatever 'the husband' does is accepting and realising hukam. This is not saying that whatever your husband (worldy husband) does you must accept as good, they're not saints :)..but whatever 'our' husband does..accept as good..We are all the wife/soul-bride in this context..

The quotes you listed again are from the shabad and the word husband refers to our husband-lord (Akal Purakh). Only by this divine love is true wealth (NAAM) obtained..not by a 'man's' love dear sister..you act in accordance to akaal's (husband lord's) directions. We surrender our body and mind to HIM (akaal), never to anyone else.

I think if you read the Laavan by Guroo Ram Das jee, this parallel will make sense to you. You must understand that a Sikh holds the characteristic of a Singh & a Kaur, those 32 ideal qualities..a Singh better have too ;) with some replaced for more masculine qualities that is--hehe. Also, we are all soul-brides of the husband-lord, each and every one of us. These qualities and 'directions' are how we should keep our relationship with the husband-lord, it shows a parallel to wordly relationships..For example:'Gundt purethee mithai bol' The bond of love is held with sweet words. If you're always mouthing off your husband, that bond of love will never last..if you don't praise and lovingly express yourself to Akal Purakh..will that bond of love be held?

Also, once you are married you are joined as 'one' and that means your union serves the husband-lord 'together'. In essence, it's not ONLY women who have to speak sweetly, accept will or serve selflessly, men must do this as well. Bani vich subh noo 'ishtri' da roop haiga bhen..

nivan s akhar khavan gun jihabaa maneeaa ma(n)th ||

Humility is the word, forgiveness is the virtue, and sweet speech is the magic mantra.

eae thrai bhainae vaes kar thaa(n) vas aavee ka(n)th ||127||

Wear these three robes, O sister, and you will captivate your Husband Lord. ||127||

Also..you asked what the husband (akaal purakh) does/ is supposed to do for his soul-brides..

gur sabadhai maelaa thaa pir raavee laahaa naam sa(n)saarae ||

Through the Word of the Guru's Shabad, the soul-bride meets her Husband Lord, who ravishes and enjoys her. The Naam, the Name of the Lord, is the only profit in this world.

naanak kaaman naah piaaree jaa har kae gun saarae ||1||

O Nanak, the soul-bride is loved by her Husband, when she dwells upon the Glorious Praises of the Lord. ||1||

saa dhhan ra(n)g maanae jeeo aapanae naal piaarae ||

The soul-bride enjoys the Love of her Beloved.

ahinis ra(n)g raathee jeeo gur sabadh veechaarae ||

Imbued with His Love night and day, she contemplates the Word of the Guru's Shabad.

gur sabadh veechaarae houmai maarae ein bidhh milahu piaarae ||

Contemplating the Guru's Shabad, she conquers her ego, and in this way, she meets her Beloved.

apunae gur mil reheeai a(n)mrith geheeai dhubidhhaa maar nivaarae ||

Abiding in the Company of our Guru, we grasp the Ambrosial Nectar; we conquer and cast out our sense of duality.

naanak kaaman har var paaeiaa sagalae dhookh visaarae ||2||

O Nanak, the soul-bride attains her Husband Lord, and forgets all her pains. ||2||

paanee a(n)n n bhaavai mareeai haavai bin pir kio sukh paaeeai ||

I have no desire for food or water, and I am dying from the pain of separation. Without my Husband Lord, how can I find peace?

aapae mael leae sukhadhaathaa aap miliaa ghar aaeae ||

The Giver of peace has united me with Himself; He Himself has come to my home (soul) to meet me.

naanak kaaman sadhaa suhaagan naa pir marai n jaaeae ||4||2||

O Nanak, the soul-bride is forever the Lord's favorite wife; her Husband Lord does not die, and He shall never leave. ||4||2||

Peace..love..love..naam..love..sangat..amrit..no duality..no pains..you're his favorite wife, he NEVER leaves and NEVER dies..What else could anyone even want? :D

I think compared to the small efforts we put in..it's nothing to what our beloved husband lord gives us..

headless in love.....

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Great post Summeet Kaur and good analysis of the the various points. I agree with you that the teachings in many ways apply to men too for their spiritual significance as soul-brides of Nirankar.

Incidently, it is interesting to note that you and Amrit Veer have looked at the 32 characteristics using the touchstone of Gurbani as opposed to looking at the in the literal sense alone.

I still would like to understand, and please could any Taksali Singh/Singhnees on the forum, help elaborate on this point, but why does the Taksal Rehit Maryada incudes instuction to what is basically literal Husband Worship?

Gur Fateh!

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The husband is the God or the God is the husband. The bride is supposed to worship her husband.

It is not easy to understand the concept of worship. The worship is not something, which has to be done with candles, perfumes, saffron etc. The worship is not any particular yogic posture. The worship is not a name of any particular religion. Worship is not a name of any rituals.

Worship is to love. For a worshiper, worship is synonymous to love. In the world of love, the beloved is the God. For a lover, for a worshiper, the beloved is the center of thoughts. If someone is in your thoughts, and it makes you happy and gives some mystic feelings, then you are in love, you are worshiping.

When you are in love, you do not see what your beloved would do for you. When you are in love, you do not see what your beloved would give you. You just want to know what makes your beloved happy. You are ready to do anything for your love. You just want to know how your beloved can be pleased. You are ready to go everywhere to learn the techniques to please your love. Someone asks you to go to someone, who has the experience: -

"Jaaye Puchhoh Sohaagan Vaahai Kinee Baateen Sahu Paayeeyai".

(Go and ask the devoted brides, how can one obtain the husband?). (Sri Guru Granth Sahib, page 722).

We get the answer: -

"Jo Kichh Kare So Bhala Kar Maaneeyai Hikmat Hukam Chukaayeeyai. Jaa Kai Prem Pdaarth Paayeeyai Tau Charnee Chit Laayeeyai. Sahu Kahai So Keejai Tan Mano Deejai Aisa Parmal Laayeeyai. Ev Kahainh Sohaagnee Bhaine Inee Baateen Sahu Paayeeyai".

(Whatever husband does, accept that as good; do away with your own cleverness and self-will. By His Love, true wealth is obtained; link your consciousness to His feet. As husband directs, so one must act; surrender your body and mind to Him, and apply this perfume to you. So speaks the devoted brides, O sister; in this way, the Husband is obtained). (Sri Guru Granth Sahib, page 722).

Jaa Kai Prem Pdaarth Paayeeyai Tau Charnee Chit Laayeeyai? Why not? If you love someone, you think constantly about him. Your love (lover/beloved) remains in your thoughts. What else is worship?

The beloved is so lovely to the lover. Not just the beloved, even his/her dog is dear to the lover: -

"Lailee Dee Dargaah Daa Kutta, Majnoo Dekh Lubhaana.

Kutte Dee Pairee Pavai, Harh-Harh Hasai Lok Vidaana".

('Paurhee' 31, 'Vaar' 37, Bhaayee Sahib Gurdaas Jee).

'Majnoo' was so happy to see the dog of his beloved 'Laila'. He started to touch the feet of the dog. The people were laughing boisterously.

For an ordinary person, 'Majnoo' was a foolish. 'What was the need to touch the feet of Laila's dog?'

But, the worshiper knows the love, the worship. Every thing belonged to the beloved is dear to the lover. If so, then why will a lover not accept the 'will' ('Hukam') of the beloved very happily: -

"Jo Kichh Kare So Bhala Kar Maaneeyai".

(Whatever he does, accept that as good). (Sri Guru Granth Sahib, page 722).

In reality, our worship, our love, our relations are based on lust. Our worship/love/relations are just bargaining. We are ready to 'worship' someone, if he/she gives us too much money. We pretend to do love, if we find someone suitable for us from economical point of view. Actually, the worldly relation of husband/wife is based on our economical requirements. If the boy is good, religious, kindhearted, but not rich or unemployed, how many girls will be ready to be married to such a 'saint'? Those, who know how many marriages were broken in Punjab recently because ooze made many husbands economically very weak, will agree to this point.

If this is the situation, how can someone expect that there would be the 'husband worship'? When the husbands are being killed by the wives and their 'lovers' (?), how can someone hope for the concept of 'Patee Parmeshavra' (Lord Husband)?

The concept of 'Patee Parmeshvra' is an ideal concept; same as there are 32 qualities of an ideal woman fixed by our old religious tradition. How many women are there, who have these 32 qualities? (Please read again the 32 qualities). If there is not any such woman, how can someone look forward to 'Patee Parmeshvra', or the husband having godly qualities?

Now, the point to understand is one will have to 'worship', and then he/she could experience the God. You cannot insist that you want the experience of the God first, and then you will think to 'worship'. Bargaining is not allowed in love/devotion.

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Guest Javanmard

here is the list of the 64 arts that Vatsyayana quotes in his Kamasutra:

Vocal music

Instruments

Dance

Drawing

Cutouts

Carpets

Flower bouquets

Dyes

Mosaics

Bed arrangement

Jalatarangam

Water-spewing games

Use of charms/drugs/magic words chitra yoga

Garland making

Crowns and head ornaments

Art of dressing

Ivory ornaments

Preparation of perfumes

Jewelery

Conjuring Indrajala

Magic Kuchumara

Manicure

Cooking

Preperation of drinks

Needlework

Lace-making

Vina

Conundrums

Completing a quotation Pratimala

Riddles

Book-binding

Story-telling

Quoting Classics

Plaiting cane baskets

Woodwork

Carpentry

House decoration

Knowledge Stones & Gems

Polishing

Evaluating shape and color of stones

Arboriculture

Stockbreeding

Teaching birds to talk

Massage

Sign language

Understanding foreign languages

Speaking regional languages

Decorating chariots with flowers

Observing omens

Fabricating machines

Developing memory

Reciting texts

Puns

Dictionary

Poetic meter

Versification

Cheating (games)

Disguise Vastagopanam

Gambling

Chess

Childrens games

Good manners

Rules for success

Physical Culture

Interestingly enough Kahn SIngh Nabha only mentions 32 arts whereas the sau sakhi and Charitropakhyan mention 64 arts. In fact Guru Gobind SIngh Ji Himself is described in one of the sakhis as the master of the 64 arts!

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Guest Maha_Pavitar

Sorry veerji for the ignorance, I'm a bit confused...

Are Nabha jee's 32 included in these 64? Or are those his own interpretation?? What are the origins of each..

What is Jalatarangam ??

Oh dear, looks like I'm not measuring up after all :LOL:

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Guest Javanmard

These 64 arts are actually related to each other and in the end are actually subsections of certian disciplines. Jaltarang is a type of musical instrument. Fill cups of water with different amounts of water so that each cup corresponds to a different note. the cups are played with two sticks.

The 64 arts are not supposed to be all mastered they are an ideal and one should strife to achive as many as one can! btw they are for men as well!!!

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Sorry veerji, I think you misunderstood my question..I was asking whether the 32 qualities are accurate or are they just 32 of these 64 you listed?

Is this similar to when Guroo jee talks about 'nine treasures' or 'punj shabad', so these are the 32 or 64 qualities..

They are for men too? Wow..so how come Nabha jee lists them as only for women?

Could you please help me understand some qualities I am not certain about their definition or purpose?

--Water-spewing games??

--Use of charms/drugs/magic words??

--Conjuring Indrajala

--Magic Kuchumara

--Vina

--Disguise Vastagopanam

--Cheating (games)

This is very intersting..please tell us more!

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Dear sister Summeet Kaur Ji,

The 'Batees Sulkshan' has not been created by Kahan Singh Naabha either. He just told what are the 32 qualities of men and women. Because the topic is '32 Qualities of an Ideal Woman', so I wrote what the 32 qualities are.

In traditional 'Bhaaratee' (Indian) poetic world, there have been given the 32 qualities of a man and woman. We find the reference to 'Batees Lakhan' (32 quailities) in Sri Guru Granth Sahib.

Everyone could have his/her own explanation of these 32 qualities. For example, one of these qualities is 'beauty'. According to the Gurbani, 'Seyee Sunder Sohne, Saadh Sang Jin Baihne' (Only those, who abide in the Saadh Sangat, the Company of the Holy, are beautiful and attractive) (Sri Guru Granth Sahib, page 132), on the other hand, we find 32 physical quailities too, in our traditional literature.

The description of physical beauty is not something new or strange. In Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji, the beauty of the goddess Durga has been described in these words: -

"Kanchan Se Tan Khanjan Se Drig Kanjan Ke Sukhma Skuchi Hai. Lai Kartaar Sudha Kar Mai Madh Moorat See Ang Ang Rachi Hai. Aanan Kee Sar Ko Sas Nahin Aur Kachhoo Upma Na Bachee Hai.Sring Sumer Ke Chand Biraajat Maano Singhaasan Baithhee Sachee Hai". (The goddess has a golden body and her eyes are like those of a 'khanjan'(a bird) before which even the smoothness of lotus flowers is put to shame. It seems as if the Lord-Creator made this grand form having filled nectar in each limb. Moon is no match to her face, and no other comparison seems apt. The goddess sitting on the top of mountain 'Sumer' looks like queen 'Shachi' (wife of Indra) sitting on her throne). (Sri Dasam Granth Sahib, page 81-82).

Another example, "Her face is moon-like which annihilates all agonies. Her hair-locks are like-infact, they even excel them-the snakes around the neck of Shiva. Her eyes are as smooth as the lotus flower. Her eyebrows are just like Shiva' bow and her eyelashes are like arrows. Her waist is slim like that of a lion and her gait is captivating like an elephant's. She is so beautiful that she enchants all. She has a sword in hand and rides a lion. She is beauty-incarnate and holds a bow in another hand. 88. Fish is put to languor, lotus and Khanjan (a bird) feel vexed and seeing her, the black bee wanders about falteringly in the forest. Her (sharp) nose upsets the parrot, her neck upsets the pigeon and her voice upsets the nightingale and they also wander restless in the forest. Her rows of teeth excel the pomegranate. The beauty of her face is so shining that it provides light to the world. She is an embodiment of such beauty and many merits that she has charmed my heart with a single look of her eyes". (Stanza 88 and 89, 'Chandee Charitra Ukt Bilaas', Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji, page 82).

Let us see how the beauty of Seeta, the wife of King Raam, has been described, "She looked as if she were either a daughter of a god, or 'Shakti' of Shiva, 'Yakshini', 'Kinnarani' or daughter of serpent god. She seemed to be 'Gandharavi', daughter of demon of god. She seemed daughter of sun and the pious nectar-like light of moon. She seemed to be musical tone or a complete musical measure. She appears to be an image of god and the grandeur of the arrows of love-god. She seems to be the perfect image of a painting and also appears to be a woman with different kinds of 'Sankhini', 'Chitrani' and 'Padmini'. She seems to be the tome of all measures. Such Sita, the young lass, was married by Rama today". (Ramavtar, Sri Dasam Granth Sahib, page 196).

Basically, there are four categories of men and four categories of women. But, the most famous category is 'Padmini' (a category of women). A perfect woman is considered a 'Padmini'. I think that the 32 qualities of a woman belong to 'Padmini'.

The 'Padmini' woman is considered an ideal woman. The word 'Padmini' has widely been used in Indian literature. Do you remember the famous line of 'Mirza', which says 'Saahibaan Kehrhee Padmani, Oh Vee Rannaan Vargee Rann'?

As far 64 arts are concerned, those are definitely different to 32 qualities of an ideal woman. For example, 'beauty' is a quality, but not art; though many arts are qualities too. Different writers have mentioned different arts. Kahan Singh of Nabha has mentioned these 64 arts either. See 'Chausathh Kalaa' in his book 'Mahaan Kosh'.

Regards,

-Amrit Pal Singh 'Amrit'

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Guest Javanmard

Thanks for shedding lights on this mate Amrit. Apologies for the confusion created by my post. The 64 arts are mentioned by Vatsyayana and should be put in the context of the 32 qualities of women.

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