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Kam1825

knowlege of Raag through the raagmala

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just thought i would share aquick post re the raagmala and raags which i found on the net

Ragamala

The literal meaning of the word Ragmala is: a chain/necklace (mala) of ragas i.e., a list of ragas. This list differs according to the author and the music school it is based upon. Thus there exists a number of such lists in the music text books.

The Ragamala listed in Guru Granth Sahib belongs to Hanumant school of music. According to Bhai Vir Singh, a Sikh scholar, the ragamala included in Guru Granth Sahib was prepared by Guru Nanak Dev and it contains a list of popular ragas of that period of time. This ragamala must not be read as an index of ragas of Guru Granth Sahib, for it is only a list of popular ragas sung at the time period of Sikh Gurus. Moreover there are ragas mentioned in the Ragamala which are not included in Guru Granth Sahib, and there are ragas used in Guru Granth Sahib which are not mentioned in the Ragamala. In fact the Ragamala included in Guru Granth Sahib is no way related to the ragas used by the Sikh Gurus to compose their hymns. It is just an independent list of ragas based on Hanumant School of music.

It is also important to note that unlike various Schools of Music, there is no mention of raginis (consort of ragas) or their sons in Guru Granth Sahib. There is a mention of 37 ragas. Thirty one ragas refer to 31 chapters in the musical section of Guru Granth Sahib (pages 14 - 1353), and six other ragas mentioned therein have been mixed with the 31 major names used in Guru Granth Sahib.

The following ragas names, which are used as chapter headings, have been used by the Sikh Gurus to compose their hymns:

Sri

Devghandhari

Jaitsiri

Bilawal

Maru

Sarang

Maj

Bihagra

Todi

Gaund

Tukhari

Malhar

Gauri

Wadhans

Berari

Ramkali

Kedara

Kanara

Asa

Sorath

Tilang

Nutnarain

Bhairav

Kalyan

Gujri

Dhanasri

Suhi

Mali Gaura

Basant

Parbhati

Click on a Raag Name for details

Jaijaiwanti

Other six raga names mentioned/used in Guru Granth Sahib are:

* Asawari*

* Lalit*

* Hindol*

* Vibas

* Kafi

* Bhopali

The ragas marked with asterix (*) sign mentioned above are listed in Guru Granth Sahib's ragamala, which has a mention of a total of 64 raga names, including 6 major ragas, 30 raginis and 48 sons of ragas. Thus out of a total of 64 ragas mentioned in the ragamala, the Sikh Gurus have used only 20 (17 major names, and 3 other raga names) ragas and have used 17 (14 major names and 3 other names) other ragas which are not mentioned in the Guru Granth Sahib's ragamala.

Specialist Terminology to understand musical terms used in the following pages.

1. Thaat - The tune of seven ascending and descending notes is called 'Thath oio' ,

* A Thaat must have seven notes out of the twelve notes [seven Shuddha, Four komal (Re, Ga, Dha , Ni), one teevra (Ma) ], placed in an ascending order. Both the forms of the notes can be used.

* Thaat has only an Aaroha.

* Thaats are not sung but the raags produced from the Thaats are sung.

* Thaats are named after the popular raag of that Thaat. For example Bhairavi is a popular raag and the thaat of the raag Bhairavi is named after the raag.

The music books record ten basic thaats:

* Kalyan

* Bilawal

* Khamaj

* Bhairav

* Bhairvi

* Asawari

* Todi

* Poorvi

* Marwa

* Kafi

2. Arohi - The ascending scale (sa re ga ma pa dha ni sa) .This is the pattern of notes in which a Raag ascends the scale.

3. Avrohi - The descending scale (sa ni dha pa ma ga re sa) This is the pattern of notes in which a Raag decends the scale.

4. Vadi - The most popular note ,This is a note which is strongly emphasised within a particular Raag.

5. Samvadi - The second most popular note,This is a note which is emphasised within a particular Raag, but not as much as the Vadi.

6. Aurav - A raga of five notes

7. Khaurav - A raga of six notes

8. Sampooran - A raga of seven notes

9. Aurav-Khaurav - Where arohi has five notes, but avrohi has six notes.

10. Khaurav-Aurav - Where arohi has six notes, but avrohi has five notes.

11. Aurav-Sampooran - Where arohi has five notes, but avrohi has seven notes

12. Khaurav-Sampooran - Where arohi has six notes, but avrohi has seven notes.

13. Sampooran-Aurav - Where arohi has seven notes, but avrohi has five notes.

14. Sampooran-Khaurav- Where arohi has seven notes, but avrohi has six notes.

15. Saptaks - This refers to three divisions of a harmonium

* Mandar - first (top) part of seven notes

* Middle - central part of seven notes

* Tar - last part of seven notes.

16. The notes can be soft (komal) or sharp (teever)

Musical terms regarding a presentation of a raag in vocal style

1.Sthayee : The first part of the composition. Mainly develops in the the lower and the middle octave.

2.Antaraa : Second part of the composition. Develops in the middle or higher note.

3.Mukhadaa : The first line of the composition.

Common Themes of Shabads placed under Raags of Guru Granth Sahib

1. Soohi - Being away from home. The soul being away from the House of Lord and the joy of meeting the true husband.

2. Bilaaval - beautification of soul, happiness.

3. Gaund - Separation, union, surprise.

4. Sri - Maya and detachment

5. Maajh - yearning to merge with Lord, giving up of negative values.

6. Gauri - Principles, serious, thoughtfulness, composed

7. Aasa - Hope

8. Gujri - Prayer (Pooja)

9. Devgandhari - Merging with spouse, self - realization

10. Bihaagra - Yearning due to separation of soul and happiness due to meeting the Lord.

11. Sorath - Merits of God

12. Dhanasari - Mixed theme

13. Jaitsree - Stability

14. Todi - Maya, separation

15. Bairagi - motivation to sing praises of Lord

16. Tilang - many words from the vocabulary of Islamic origins are used, sadness, beautification.

17. Raamkali - to give up the life of a wandering Jogi.

18. Nat Narayan - Joy of meeting the Lord

19. Maali Gaura - Happiness

20. Maaru - Bravery

21. Tukhari - Separation and union with Lord

22. Kedara - Love

23. Bhairav - Man's state of hell

24. Basant - Happiness

25. Sarang - Thirst to meet God

26. Malaar - State of separated and united soul

27. Jaijawanti - Vairaag (Detachment)

28. Kalyaan - Bhakti (Prayer) Ras

29. Vadhans - Vairaag (Detachment)

30. Parbhati - Bhakti (Prayer)

31. Kaanra - Bhakti (Prayer)

Feelings communicated by the music of Raags

1. Soohi - joy and separation

2. Bilaaval - happiness

3. Gaund - strangeness, surprise, beauty

4. Sri - satisfaction and balance

5. Maajh - loss, beautification

6. Gauri - seriousness

7. Aasa - making effort

8. Gujri - satisfaction, softness of heart, sadness

9. Devgandhari - no specific feeling but the Raag has a softness

10. Bihaagra - beautification

11. Sorath - motivation

12. Dhanasari - inspiration, motivation

13. Jaitsree - softness, satisfaction, sadness

14. Todi - this being a flexible Raag it is apt for communicating many feelings

15. Bhairaagi - sadness, (Gurus have, however, used it for the message of Bhakti)

16. Tilang - this is a favourite Raag of Muslims. It denotes feeling of beautification and yearning.

17. Raamkali - calmness

18. Nat Narayan - happiness

19. Maali Gaura - happiness

20. Maaru - giving up of cowardice

21. Tukhari - beautification

22. Kedara - love and beautification

23. Bhairav - seriousness, brings stability of mind

24. Basant - happiness

25. Sarang - sadness

26. Malaar - separation

27. Jaijawanti - viraag

28. Kalyaan - Bhakti Ras

29. Vadhans - vairaag, loss (that is why Alahniya is sung in this Raag when someone passes away)

30. Parbhati - Bhakti and seriousness

31. Kaanra - Bhakti and seriousness

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Admin Jeeo, please move thread to the Gurmat sangeet section. Thanks.

Interesting. Bhai Sahib, please provide the web link to this info.

I will add some comments on this soon.

But to start with, one thing that made me laugh:

"15. Saptaks - This refers to three divisions of a harmonium"

When are these people going to wake up - the BAJA was introduced to Singh Sabhias/Tat Khalsa/SGPC in the early 20th century, it was a con, during this same period, all the beautiful saaj our Guru's and raagis up to this time had been using strangely disappeared (yet to be investigated today), for a such a short time period up to now, there should be thousands of examples of real sikh saaj available, be we have only a handful?

Just funny, that a supposedly education article refers to saptaks (1st mentioned around 1000 years ago), and harmonium in the same sentance!

Also, the "middle" saptak is called Madh Saptak.

There are 5 principle sur (notes) in any raag, but most Raagis like to tell you there are only 2 (the 1st 2):

Sur A sort of easy to follow description, denoting the importance

of each note in the raag:

Vadi King

Samvadi Queen

Niyas Prince/Princess

Anuvadi Good Friend

Vivadi Associate (need to be cautious of this person)

One HUGE element-link that is now missing in raagi jathaas is knowledge of musicology, something which the above attempts to explain. It is this expression of emotion which sets real kirtan and technical (classical) raag kirtan apart.

I will attempt to post the mood of one raag every few days, in a bit more detail from above. Old art from India sometimes reveals the emotion of raags in a truel beautiful way.

Re the raags, Indian Classical never gives credit to the creative genius of our Guru's...

Guru Ramdas Ji "INVENTED" dual rythems in one song. Today you see many musicians/artists trying to copy this i.e. hip hop artists (who appreciate our Guru's talents more than we do, as they study indian classical and use man tricks from it).

"Partaal" is instructed for us to use for more complex shadab where the tuk and pada's lengths vary, meaning you can't use one taal i.e. 16 beat for the whole shabad, it is a truely mind blowing invention, and the affect in kirtan is amazing.

Guru Arjun Dev Ji was the master of fusion. Many people still refer to only 31 raags in gurbani, there are in fact 60 (in my opinion - following Professor Surinder Singh Ji's research), other great Gurmat Sangeet academic Dr Gurnaam Singh Ji Punja University Patiala, claims 61-62, I can't remeber off hand, but his 61st couldn't actually be found in Gurbani, a mistake from what I remember.

The remaining raags are called mishrat raags are most definately raags in their own right. Guru Arjun had a need to fill gaps in the emotional content of Gurbani which Indian classical tradition could not fill, so they fused specific raags to create new emotions relevant to the baani in question. Truely amazing. Yet instead of trying to understand, experience and promote out Guru Ji's massive contribution to Sangeet, our people would rather follow the mainstream traditionally view, even thought the evidence is there in black and white in Gurbani.

Sri Sarbloh Sahib Ji is said to have over 600 raags (I haven'f had darshan as yet, but maybe a sevadaar here could count and confirm, not a 2 minute job I know), which shows the musical genius of Sri Dasam patshah. Today fulltime Raagis cannot master all over Sri Guru Granth sahib jis raags let alone, Dasam Patshaahs contribution.

Mishrat raags aside, our Guru sahiban invented these raags: Majh, Vaddhans, Suhee, Maru, Tukaree, Parbhati and Jajawantee, to which no reference is found before Sri Ad Granth Sahib Ji.

Thats enough for, was only supposed to be 1 point when I started writing!

Vaheguru, we had our Nirdaareth raag kirtan darbaar in Tooting in South London today, it was amazing, next one will be on the 24th of May at Southgate Gurdwara in North London, I will post an advert soon, I pray my veers and bhenjis who are able will be able and come to see what exactly we are talking about above.

God bless you.

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This is off the namdhari forum. I have no problems with Namdharis so burn me if you want.

the link is

http://namdhari.awardspace.info/?pid=view_...&forum_id=3

there is also another linked topic on the forum which is pasted below

The Indian Classical Music has three built in pillars called elements of music, they are:

* Raga

* Mood

* Expression

A. Raga:

Raag, in the Sanskrit dictionary, is defined as "the act of coloring or dyeing" (the mind in this context) and "any feeling or passion especially love, affection, sympathy, vehement desire, interest, joy, or delight". In music, these descriptions apply to the impressions of melodic sounds on both the artist(s) and listener(s). A raag consists of required and optional rules governing the melodic movements of notes within a performance.

Indian classical music is based on raga system, which has continuously evolved over the millenniums, from pre Aryan period until today. The music and ragas also have their roots in the Hindu mythology e.g., Shiv's tandav dance, and Narad's and Saraswati's playing of divine musical instruments are legendary evidences of the existence of music in the world of gods.

The definition and meaning of raga has changed many a times over the long period of history and mythology. The root word for the term 'Raga' is the Sanskrit word 'Ranja' meaning to please, to colour or to tinge. The meaning of the raga revolves around three basic elements:

* colour

* passion, and

* melody.

The melodic performer utilizes a raag as the foundation for improvisation. A recital explores a raag in an non-metered form and/or within the confines of a cyclical rhythmic structure, using intricate ornamentation of notes. First the raag is introduced with a note or group of notes, and then the improvisation progresses to a more melodically and rhythmically complex form.

The manner in which raags originate is a fascinating subject. Many raags are polished forms of a family of regional folk melodies while others have been created through the imagination of musicians. Some of the latter are raags with their own distinct characteristics whereas other creations are a combination of one or more existing raags. The names of some established raags have changed with time and the characteristics/ definitions of raags also are not as rigid as claimed in theory.

History of ragas:

* Bharata is considered to be the earliest authority on Indian Music. In his work 'Natya Shastra' written in the third century A.D.. he has explained the meaning of ragas but has not given any coherent definition of the word. Later works of this period were produced by Kayshap and Matanga

* Pandit Somnath's work titled 'Rag - Vobodh' was produced in the medieval period. He said that a raga was an arrangement of sounds, consisting of musical notes, which possess Varna. Varna here means manner and order in which Svaras (notes) are applied.

* The modern writers have given the following definitions of a raga:

i. Fox Strangeway defines a raga as: "An arbitrary series of notes characterised as far as possible as individuals, by proximity to or remoteness from the note which marks the general level of melody, by a special order in which they are usually reinforced by a drone". 1

Music of Hindustan, Oxford University, 1914, pp. 107

ii. Herbert A. Popley defines a raga as: "Different series of notes within the octave, which form each other by the prominence of certain fixed notes and by the sequence of particular notes". 2

B .Mood

Mood is the frame of mind or state of feelings. It is the comprehensive term for any state of mind in which one emotion or desire or a set of them is ascendant.

C. Expression

It is primarily an act or process of representation. It deals with the role of expression in a musical performance, the means of expression and the factors responsible for expression while presenting any raga.

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Shaheediyan your question on the number of Raags in the Sri Sarbloh is aroun 1200 raags. I was told this when i went to Jawaddi Gurdwara in Ludhiana. Sant Amir Singh ji and Sant Sohan Singh ji specialise in both Katha but mostly in puratan Tanti Saaz Raag keertan and teach over 400 students there. it was amazing plus they have released book under the name of vismaad naad on raag kertan and organise the Adduti Gurmat Sangeet Samellan yearly. will put some books up soon.

I know at Jawaddi they were performing Sri Sarbloh in many raags when i was there however they do not record these due to other fractions of the panth not believing in the granth.

If anyone ever goes there you will gaina great knowledge of a jewel which has almost been completely lost by the panth. If it was not for the Namdharis and a minority group of sewapanthis and nihangs i think raag vidiya would have disappeared.

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Dear veer Kam Ji,

Yes, I agree that Baba Partaap Singh Ji Namdhari made a priceless contribution to the preservation of Gurmat Sangeet (In my opinion the biggest), I have spoken a little more re this here:

http://www.sikhawareness.com/sikhawareness...opic.php?t=9259

Re Seva Panthi, I don't think any concerted effort was made to preserve Gurmat Sangeet, as their specialty was not kirtan but parchaar/education.

Baba Shaam Singh Ji Aden-Shaahi was unique, they developed a love for kirtan and they followed their heart, giving 75 years nishkaam service at Darbaar Sahib. From what I have been told neither their Jeevan Sakhi nor Prem Parkaash Granth have much reference to kirtan, probably around a page or two, which mainly talks of some historical references i.e. the inception of the Saranda at Guru Arjun Dev Ji's darbaar. Baba Ji learnt kirtan from a gifted Mussalmaan Baba, I will post more details when I have them. I know their have been a few other individuals as well i.e. Mahant Guja singh Ji etc.

Nihangs I don't know much about, Budda Jor is supposed to have some knowledge, but I don't what the heritage is and haven't ever really heard of any of its exponents. Bhai Balbir Singh Ji is Budda Daals claim to fame, but from what I have been told, they recieved their kirtan training elsewhere, they only took amrit at the daal.

Raag Vidya survival was not dependant upon these few people groups alone, there were many other individuals who preserved this treasure, I will try and post articles on them in the future.

Hopefully will be able to research this further when I finally visit India for the 1st time.

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Guest Raj
On ‎25‎-‎03‎-‎2007 at 6:24 AM, shaheediyan said:

Admin Jeeo, please move thread to the Gurmat sangeet section. Thanks.

 

Interesting. Bhai Sahib, please provide the web link to this info.

 

I will add some comments on this soon.

 

But to start with, one thing that made me laugh:

 

"15. Saptaks - This refers to three divisions of a harmonium"

 

When are these people going to wake up - the BAJA was introduced to Singh Sabhias/Tat Khalsa/SGPC in the early 20th century, it was a con, during this same period, all the beautiful saaj our Guru's and raagis up to this time had been using strangely disappeared (yet to be investigated today), for a such a short time period up to now, there should be thousands of examples of real sikh saaj available, be we have only a handful?

 

Just funny, that a supposedly education article refers to saptaks (1st mentioned around 1000 years ago), and harmonium in the same sentance!

 

Also, the "middle" saptak is called Madh Saptak.

 

There are 5 principle sur (notes) in any raag, but most Raagis like to tell you there are only 2 (the 1st 2):

 

Sur A sort of easy to follow description, denoting the importance

of each note in the raag:

 

Vadi King

Samvadi Queen

Niyas Prince/Princess

Anuvadi Good Friend

Vivadi Associate (need to be cautious of this person)

 

One HUGE element-link that is now missing in raagi jathaas is knowledge of musicology, something which the above attempts to explain. It is this expression of emotion which sets real kirtan and technical (classical) raag kirtan apart.

 

I will attempt to post the mood of one raag every few days, in a bit more detail from above. Old art from India sometimes reveals the emotion of raags in a truel beautiful way.

 

Re the raags, Indian Classical never gives credit to the creative genius of our Guru's...

 

Guru Ramdas Ji "INVENTED" dual rythems in one song. Today you see many musicians/artists trying to copy this i.e. hip hop artists (who appreciate our Guru's talents more than we do, as they study indian classical and use man tricks from it).

 

"Partaal" is instructed for us to use for more complex shadab where the tuk and pada's lengths vary, meaning you can't use one taal i.e. 16 beat for the whole shabad, it is a truely mind blowing invention, and the affect in kirtan is amazing.

 

Guru Arjun Dev Ji was the master of fusion. Many people still refer to only 31 raags in gurbani, there are in fact 60 (in my opinion - following Professor Surinder Singh Ji's research), other great Gurmat Sangeet academic Dr Gurnaam Singh Ji Punja University Patiala, claims 61-62, I can't remeber off hand, but his 61st couldn't actually be found in Gurbani, a mistake from what I remember.

 

The remaining raags are called mishrat raags are most definately raags in their own right. Guru Arjun had a need to fill gaps in the emotional content of Gurbani which Indian classical tradition could not fill, so they fused specific raags to create new emotions relevant to the baani in question. Truely amazing. Yet instead of trying to understand, experience and promote out Guru Ji's massive contribution to Sangeet, our people would rather follow the mainstream traditionally view, even thought the evidence is there in black and white in Gurbani.

 

Sri Sarbloh Sahib Ji is said to have over 600 raags (I haven'f had darshan as yet, but maybe a sevadaar here could count and confirm, not a 2 minute job I know), which shows the musical genius of Sri Dasam patshah. Today fulltime Raagis cannot master all over Sri Guru Granth sahib jis raags let alone, Dasam Patshaahs contribution.

 

Mishrat raags aside, our Guru sahiban invented these raags: Majh, Vaddhans, Suhee, Maru, Tukaree, Parbhati and Jajawantee, to which no reference is found before Sri Ad Granth Sahib Ji.

 

Thats enough for, was only supposed to be 1 point when I started writing!

 

Vaheguru, we had our Nirdaareth raag kirtan darbaar in Tooting in South London today, it was amazing, next one will be on the 24th of May at Southgate Gurdwara in North London, I will post an advert soon, I pray my veers and bhenjis who are able will be able and come to see what exactly we are talking about above.

 

God bless you.

Visit rajacademy.com

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Guest srsseehra
On ‎3‎/‎25‎/‎2007 at 5:08 AM, Kam1825 said:

just thought i would share aquick post re the raagmala and raags which i found on the net

 

Ragamala

 

The literal meaning of the word Ragmala is: a chain/necklace (mala) of ragas i.e., a list of ragas. This list differs according to the author and the music school it is based upon. Thus there exists a number of such lists in the music text books.

 

The Ragamala listed in Guru Granth Sahib belongs to Hanumant school of music. According to Bhai Vir Singh, a Sikh scholar, the ragamala included in Guru Granth Sahib was prepared by Guru Nanak Dev and it contains a list of popular ragas of that period of time. This ragamala must not be read as an index of ragas of Guru Granth Sahib, for it is only a list of popular ragas sung at the time period of Sikh Gurus. Moreover there are ragas mentioned in the Ragamala which are not included in Guru Granth Sahib, and there are ragas used in Guru Granth Sahib which are not mentioned in the Ragamala. In fact the Ragamala included in Guru Granth Sahib is no way related to the ragas used by the Sikh Gurus to compose their hymns. It is just an independent list of ragas based on Hanumant School of music.

 

It is also important to note that unlike various Schools of Music, there is no mention of raginis (consort of ragas) or their sons in Guru Granth Sahib. There is a mention of 37 ragas. Thirty one ragas refer to 31 chapters in the musical section of Guru Granth Sahib (pages 14 - 1353), and six other ragas mentioned therein have been mixed with the 31 major names used in Guru Granth Sahib.

 

The following ragas names, which are used as chapter headings, have been used by the Sikh Gurus to compose their hymns:

Sri

Devghandhari

 

Jaitsiri

 

Bilawal

 

Maru

 

Sarang

Maj

Bihagra

 

Todi

 

Gaund

 

Tukhari

 

Malhar

Gauri

Wadhans

 

Berari

 

Ramkali

 

Kedara

 

Kanara

Asa

Sorath

 

Tilang

 

Nutnarain

 

Bhairav

 

Kalyan

Gujri

Dhanasri

 

Suhi

 

Mali Gaura

 

Basant

 

Parbhati

Click on a Raag Name for details

Jaijaiwanti

 

Other six raga names mentioned/used in Guru Granth Sahib are:

 

* Asawari*

* Lalit*

* Hindol*

* Vibas

* Kafi

* Bhopali

 

The ragas marked with asterix (*) sign mentioned above are listed in Guru Granth Sahib's ragamala, which has a mention of a total of 64 raga names, including 6 major ragas, 30 raginis and 48 sons of ragas. Thus out of a total of 64 ragas mentioned in the ragamala, the Sikh Gurus have used only 20 (17 major names, and 3 other raga names) ragas and have used 17 (14 major names and 3 other names) other ragas which are not mentioned in the Guru Granth Sahib's ragamala.

 

Specialist Terminology to understand musical terms used in the following pages.

 

1. Thaat - The tune of seven ascending and descending notes is called 'Thath oio' ,

 

* A Thaat must have seven notes out of the twelve notes [seven Shuddha, Four komal (Re, Ga, Dha , Ni), one teevra (Ma) ], placed in an ascending order. Both the forms of the notes can be used.

* Thaat has only an Aaroha.

* Thaats are not sung but the raags produced from the Thaats are sung.

* Thaats are named after the popular raag of that Thaat. For example Bhairavi is a popular raag and the thaat of the raag Bhairavi is named after the raag.

 

The music books record ten basic thaats:

 

* Kalyan

* Bilawal

* Khamaj

* Bhairav

* Bhairvi

* Asawari

* Todi

* Poorvi

* Marwa

* Kafi

 

2. Arohi - The ascending scale (sa re ga ma pa dha ni sa) .This is the pattern of notes in which a Raag ascends the scale.

3. Avrohi - The descending scale (sa ni dha pa ma ga re sa) This is the pattern of notes in which a Raag decends the scale.

4. Vadi - The most popular note ,This is a note which is strongly emphasised within a particular Raag.

5. Samvadi - The second most popular note,This is a note which is emphasised within a particular Raag, but not as much as the Vadi.

6. Aurav - A raga of five notes

7. Khaurav - A raga of six notes

8. Sampooran - A raga of seven notes

9. Aurav-Khaurav - Where arohi has five notes, but avrohi has six notes.

10. Khaurav-Aurav - Where arohi has six notes, but avrohi has five notes.

11. Aurav-Sampooran - Where arohi has five notes, but avrohi has seven notes

12. Khaurav-Sampooran - Where arohi has six notes, but avrohi has seven notes.

13. Sampooran-Aurav - Where arohi has seven notes, but avrohi has five notes.

14. Sampooran-Khaurav- Where arohi has seven notes, but avrohi has six notes.

15. Saptaks - This refers to three divisions of a harmonium

 

* Mandar - first (top) part of seven notes

* Middle - central part of seven notes

* Tar - last part of seven notes.

 

16. The notes can be soft (komal) or sharp (teever)

 

Musical terms regarding a presentation of a raag in vocal style

 

1.Sthayee : The first part of the composition. Mainly develops in the the lower and the middle octave.

2.Antaraa : Second part of the composition. Develops in the middle or higher note.

3.Mukhadaa : The first line of the composition.

 

Common Themes of Shabads placed under Raags of Guru Granth Sahib

 

1. Soohi - Being away from home. The soul being away from the House of Lord and the joy of meeting the true husband.

2. Bilaaval - beautification of soul, happiness.

3. Gaund - Separation, union, surprise.

4. Sri - Maya and detachment

5. Maajh - yearning to merge with Lord, giving up of negative values.

6. Gauri - Principles, serious, thoughtfulness, composed

7. Aasa - Hope

8. Gujri - Prayer (Pooja)

9. Devgandhari - Merging with spouse, self - realization

10. Bihaagra - Yearning due to separation of soul and happiness due to meeting the Lord.

11. Sorath - Merits of God

12. Dhanasari - Mixed theme

13. Jaitsree - Stability

14. Todi - Maya, separation

15. Bairagi - motivation to sing praises of Lord

16. Tilang - many words from the vocabulary of Islamic origins are used, sadness, beautification.

17. Raamkali - to give up the life of a wandering Jogi.

18. Nat Narayan - Joy of meeting the Lord

19. Maali Gaura - Happiness

20. Maaru - Bravery

21. Tukhari - Separation and union with Lord

22. Kedara - Love

23. Bhairav - Man's state of hell

24. Basant - Happiness

25. Sarang - Thirst to meet God

26. Malaar - State of separated and united soul

27. Jaijawanti - Vairaag (Detachment)

28. Kalyaan - Bhakti (Prayer) Ras

29. Vadhans - Vairaag (Detachment)

30. Parbhati - Bhakti (Prayer)

31. Kaanra - Bhakti (Prayer)

 

Feelings communicated by the music of Raags

 

1. Soohi - joy and separation

2. Bilaaval - happiness

3. Gaund - strangeness, surprise, beauty

4. Sri - satisfaction and balance

5. Maajh - loss, beautification

6. Gauri - seriousness

7. Aasa - making effort

8. Gujri - satisfaction, softness of heart, sadness

9. Devgandhari - no specific feeling but the Raag has a softness

10. Bihaagra - beautification

11. Sorath - motivation

12. Dhanasari - inspiration, motivation

13. Jaitsree - softness, satisfaction, sadness

14. Todi - this being a flexible Raag it is apt for communicating many feelings

15. Bhairaagi - sadness, (Gurus have, however, used it for the message of Bhakti)

16. Tilang - this is a favourite Raag of Muslims. It denotes feeling of beautification and yearning.

17. Raamkali - calmness

18. Nat Narayan - happiness

19. Maali Gaura - happiness

20. Maaru - giving up of cowardice

21. Tukhari - beautification

22. Kedara - love and beautification

23. Bhairav - seriousness, brings stability of mind

24. Basant - happiness

25. Sarang - sadness

26. Malaar - separation

27. Jaijawanti - viraag

28. Kalyaan - Bhakti Ras

29. Vadhans - vairaag, loss (that is why Alahniya is sung in this Raag when someone passes away)

30. Parbhati - Bhakti and seriousness

31. Kaanra - Bhakti and seriousness

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