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Sikh Glossary


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Sikh Glossary -

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its kinda long to read but it will approx 7 minutes to read it. so dedicate your 7 minutes and accept this seeva from gur ka seevadar.

Forward to as many people you can. You will blessed by Akal Purkh.

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AAA

Adi Granth

Adi means first, Adi Granth is the first edition of the Guru Granth Sahib as was compiled by Guru Arjun in 1604.

Akal Purukh

It means Timeless One, or The Being Beyond Time and is applied as a name of God.

Akhand Path

An uniterupted continous reading of the Guru Granth Sahib. It is undertaken by a team of readers and takes approximately 48 hours.

Amrit

It means nectar. It is sugar water which is used during the Khalsa initiation ceremony.

Amrit Bani

A term applied to the Sikh Scriptures, meaning the words are as sweet as nectar (amrit).

Amrit Vaila

The early morning hours of dawn. This is considered an auspicious time for meditation and prayer as stressed by Guru Nanak.

Amritdhari

A Sikh who has undergone the Khalsa initiation ceremony.

Amritsanskar

The rite of initiation into the Khalsa brotherhood.

Anand

A state of bliss which defies description. It is also the name of a composition by Guru Amar Das found on pg. 917 of the Guru Granth Sahib.

Anand Karaj

The Sikh wedding ceremony.

Anand Sahib

Composition by Guru Amar Das found on page 917 of the Guru Granth Sahib. Parts of it are used in a number of Sikh ceremonies.

Anbhav Prakash

The enlightened perception of reality which is enjoyed by a person who has become a gurmukh.

Antim Ardas

The last of the Sikh funeral rites.

Artha

Wealth, it is acceptable to acqure wealth, but it should not become an end to itself.

Asa Di Var

A collection of hymns ment to be sung at dawn.

Atma

The soul which is considered immortal.

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BBB

Babur Bani

References to the invasion of India by the Mughal emperor Babur found in the Guru Granth Sahib. God is said to have sent Babur as deaths messanger.

Baisakhi

The celebration which takes place every April 13th. Guru Amardas initiated the annual gathering of Sikhs at Goindwal in 1567. In 1699 Guru Gobind Singh founded the Khalsa order on this day.

Barhmaha

Compositions about the twelve months. By Guru Arjun in Raga Majh, by Guru Nanak in Raga Tukhari and by Guru Gobind Singh in Krishavtar.

Bani

An abbriviation of Gurbani, applied to any of the writings which appear in the Guru Granth Sahib.

Benati

An appeal for assistance made to Sikhs world wide.

Bhagat Bani

Any of the writings which appear in the Guru Granth Sahib which were not written by the Gurus.

Bhog

The ceremony marking the conclusion of a Path.

Bole So Nihal

Part of the Sikh salutation meaning "anyone who speaks will be happy."

Buddha Dal

The 'army of veterans' formed by Nawab Kapur Singh in 1733 to look after Sikh holy places, preach and initiate new converts to the Khalsa order.

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CCC

Chandoa

The canopy which is placed over the Guru Granth Sahib.

Chanpada

A poetical composition consisting of four lines in a specified meter.

Charan Pahul

Baptism ceremony involving the drinking of water which the Guru or a member of the Gurus family had dipped their feet in.

Chaupai

A four line stanza form used by some of the Gurus.

Chaur(i)

Yak hair or manmade fiber embedded in a metal placed in a wooden handle. It is cerimonially waved over the Guru Granth Sahib as a symbol of respect.

Chela

A disciple of the guru, used in the Guru Granth Sahib to refer to Sikhs.

Chola

Clothing of the Gurus. Also applied to the coverings of the nishan sahib at a gurdwara.

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DDD

Dal Khalsa

The Khalsa army set up on Baisakhi day 1748 and divided up into 11 misls.

Dasam Granth

The book of writings of Guru Gobind Singh compiled after his death by Bhai Mani Singh and finished in 1734.

Daswandh

Giving of one-tenth of ones income to charity.

Deg Teg

The dual responsibility of the Panth to provide food and protection for the needy and opressed.

Dhadi

One who sings the praises of God.

Dharam Yudh

War in the defence of righteousness.

Dharma

Religion or teaching or lifestyle, as in Sikh Dharma.

Diwali

Indian festival also celebrated by Sikhs. From the time of Guru Amar Das onwards Sikhs annually gathered on this day. In 1577 the foundation stone of the Harmandir Sahib was also laid on this day.

Diwan

Congregational worship where Guru Granth Sahib is present.

Doha

Verse form used commonly by Guru Nanak and Kabir consisting of stanzas of two rhyming lines.

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FFF

Forty Immortals

Forty Sikhs who died in the battle of Muktsar in 1762 and blessed by Guru Gobind Singh.

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GGG

Gaddi

The seat or throne of guruship.

Giani

A person of spiritual knowledge.

Granthi

One who performs the reading of the Guru Granth Sahib at religious occassions, it may be a man or women.

Gristhi

Sikh ideal is that of being married, having a family, earning ones living by honest socially useful employment, serving ones fellow human beings and worshipping God.

Gurbani

The writings of the Gurus.

Gurdwara

Name given to a Sikh temple. It means 'Gateway to the Guru'.

Gurmat

A general term for Sikhism, including the teachings of the Gurus, as well as the Rahit Maryada.

Gurmata

A resolution passed in a council presided over by the Guru or the advice of the Guru.

Gurmukh

Someone who has become God oriented and God filled instead of self centred (manmukh).

Gurmukhi

The written form of Punjabi used in the Sikh scriptures, propogated by Guru Nanak and Guru Angad.

Gursikh

Someone who is deeply and sincerely devoted to the service of the Guru.

Gurpurb

The celebration of the anniversary of the birth or death of a Guru. Also applied to the anniversary of the installation of the Guru Granth Sahib in 1604 or the deaths of the sons of Guru Gobind Singh.

Gutka

Book containing the daily prayers of the Sikhs.

HHH

Hankar

Pride, one of the weaknesses.

Hazare Shabad

The common name given to 7 Shabads from the Guru Granth Sahib and 10 from the Dasam Granth.

Haumai

Pride and self centeredness.

Hola Mohalla

Annual spring gathering of Sikhs at Anandpur Sahib for sports contests, music and poetry compositions. The annual celebration was initiated by Guru Gobind Singh in 1680.

Hukam

The ordered will of God.

Hukamnama

Instructions issued by the Gurus, or other people in Sikh authority.

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III

Ik Onkar

It is found at the beginning of the Mul Mantra meaning Their is Only One God.

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JJJ

Jalous

Outdoor procession led by the Guru Granth Sahib and five Khalsa Sikhs.

Janam Sakhi

A bibliographic account of the live of Guru Nanak, or other Gurus.

Jap

Devout repetition of the divine name of God, or a scripture.

Japu Sahib

A composition of Guru Gobind Singh read by Sikhs as part of their daily prayers.

Jathedar

The appointed head of one of the five Sikh Takhts.

Jhatka Meat

Meat of an animal which has been killed quickly with one stroke. Guru Gobind Singh dictated that Sikhs can eat jhatka meat of any animal but cannot eat Muslim Halal meat, where the animal has been slowly bled to death.

Jivan Mukti

The Sikh belief that a person may achieve spiritual liberation during their lifetime and not necessarily only on their death.

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KKK

Kachha

Drawers or briefs. One of the five physical symbols that a Khalsa Sikh must wear. It is a symbol of self control.

Kalyug

An age in which righteousness and godliness is forgetten.

Kam

Lust, one of the weaknesses.

Kanga

Comb, one of the five physical symbols that a Khalsa Sikh must wear. It is a symbol of hygiene and discipline.

Kara

Steel bracelet, one of the five physical symbols that a Khalsa Sikh must wear. It is a symbol of restraint and rememberance of God.

Karah Parshad

A standard dish served at religious ceremonies in the presence of the Guru Granth Sahib and sanctified by prayers. It is a symbol of equality of all members of the congregation.

Karma

The reward or punishment of any action of man is given by Gods order according to merit, God may give it or withhold it.

Kaur

Middle or last name of a Sikh female. Mandatory last name for a Khalsa Sikh female.

Kar Seva

Term used to describe any voluntary work carried out for religious purposes, especially the building of gurdwaras. Also used to refer to the removal of silt from the tank surrounding Harmandir Sahib every 50 years.

Karta Purukh

A name of God, the Creator of all.

Katha

A religious lecture on Sikhism.

Kes

Uncut hair, one of the five physical symbols that a Khalsa Sikh must have. It is a symbol of spirituality.

Kesdhari

A Sikh who does not cut their hair, they may or may not be amritdhari.

Keski

Head covering worn between the turban and hair by some Sikhs. Also worn by some boys before they begin wearing turbans.

Kirpan

Sword, one of the five physical symbols that a Khalsa Sikh must wear. It is a symbol of the Sikh fight against injustice and religious oppression.

Kirtan

Musical rendering of Sikh gurbani.

Kirtan Sohila

Collection of 3 hymns by Guru Nanak, 1 by Guru Ram Das and 1 by Guru Arjun. It is recited as part of Nitnem at bed time and also forms part of the funeral rites.

Krodh

Anger, one of the weaknesses.

Kurahts

The vows of abstinece that one takes on becomming a Khalsa. Not to cut your hair, not to eat muslim halal meat, adultury, intoxicants.

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LLL

Langar

Free community kitchen found in all Sikh Gurdwaras. A cornersone of the Sikh religion and a symbol of equality, it was instituted by Guru Nanak.

Lawan

Circumventing the Guru Granth Sahib during the Sikh marriage ceremony. Also the name of the four stanza composition by Guru Ram Das found on page 773 of the Guru Granth Sahib.

Lobh

Greed, one of the weaknesses.

MMM

Maghi

Sikh festival held annualy on January 14 to celebrate the memory of the marytordom of the Forty Immortals in battle at Muktsar.

Mahala

Used in the Guru Granth Sahib to indicate the author of a composition by the Gurus. Each Guru used the name Nanak, for example Mahala 5 is Guru Arjun, Mahala 3 is Guru Amardas.

Mahant

Corrupt officials who had control of the gurdwaras prior to the Shromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee gaining control in 1925.

Manji

The stool or string bed upon which the Guru Granth Sahib is placed on as a symbol of its sovregnity.

Mala

A wool cord with knots used as an aid to prayer or meditation.

Manmukh

A person who is self-centered and has forgotten God, the opposite of a Gurmukh.

Matta tekna

Bowing down and touching the floor with your forehead in front of the Guru Granth Sahib as a sign of respect to the Living Guru.

Maya

The dillusion of being wrapped up in the material world and attached to it.

Mela

Any Sikh religious festival other than the birth or death of a Guru.

Miri & Piri

The concept of spiritual and worldly matters. Sikhs are expected to maintain the balance between the two, this idea was introduced by Guru Hargobind and represented by two swords.

Misl

A f ighting unit of the Sikh armies of the eighteenth century.

Mukti

Spiritual liberation from the cycles of birth and death.

Mul Mantra

It is the opening lines of the Japji by Guru Nanak and the beginning of the Guru Granth Sahib. It is considered the cornerstone of Sikhism. "God is one. His name is True. He is the Creator. His is without fear. He is inimical to none. His existance is unlimited by time. He is beyond the cycles of birth and death, self existent and can be realized through the grace of the Guru."

Mundavani

The word means seal and refers to the concluding poem by Guru Arjun in the Guru Granth Sahib which describes the spiritual qualites of reading and following the Guru Granth Sahib.

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NNN

Nagara

A kettledrum found in some gurdwaras and introduced by Guru Hargobind to be beaten when langer was ready. It is also a symbol of royal authority.

Nam

Name, name of God. Sikhism places emphasis on the rememberance of God through meditation on Gods name.

Nam Japna, Kirt Karna, Vand Chakna

Meditation on Gods name, honest work and giving to charity. Three fundamental requirements for Sikhs.

Nam Simran

The rememberance of God through meditation.

Nanak Panthi

A follower of Guru Nanak.

Nihang

An order of Sikhs who follow the soldier lifestyle of the time of Guru Gobind Singh. They wear blue robes and reject household comforts.

Nirankar

A name of God meaning the one who has no physical form.

Nirguna

Applied to God meaning one without form or material attributes. God is considered beyond human knowledge and comprehension.

Nitnem

The daily prayers that Sikhs are expected to read. Nitnem consists of reading Japji of Guru Nanak, Jap and Ten Swayyas of Guru Gobind Singh in the morning; Rahiras, a collection of nine hymns by Guru Nanak, Guru Amar Das and Guru Arjun at sunset and Kirtan Sohila, five hymns by the same three Gurus at bedtime.

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OOO

Onkar

God as the Primal Being. Also refers to a compositon of Guru Nanak which appears of page 929 of the Guru Granth Sahib.

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PPP

Pada

Division of a hymn in the Guru Granth Sahib, it varies in length from one to four verses.

Palki

The wooden, golden or marble palaquin in which the Guru Granth Sahib is ceremonially installed.

Panj Kakke

The five physical symbols which must be worn at all times by Khalsa Sikhs; kachha (briefs), kangha (comb), kara (steel bracelet), kes (unshorn hair) and kirpan (ceremonial sword).

Panj Piaras

The five beloved ones, referring to the first five Sikhs initiated into the Khalsa order by Guru Gobind Singh. Five Khalsa Sikhs are required for initiation of a new member.

Panth

The entire Sikh community.

Parkarma

The walkway around the sarovar (pool) found at many gurdwaras.

Patit

A Khalsa Sikh who has failed to live upto the vows of the Khalsa order.

Prakash Karna

The early morning ceremony when the Guru Granth Sahib is formally opened and the days worship begins.

Path

A reading of the Guru Granth Sahib.

Paudi

A stanza of the Guru Granth Sahib.

Pauri

Verses in the Guru Granth Sahib, their length and metre are both variable.

Phera

Circling of the Guru Granth Sahib during the wedding ceremony.

Pothi

A book or volume of religious hymns.

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RRR

Rag

A tune or the series of five or more notes upon which it is based.

Rag Mala

The last composition in the Guru Granth Sahib. It is a listing of 84 rags used in Indian music in the early seventeenth century.

Ragi

A musician who sings the hymns of the Guru Granth Sahib in gurdwaras.

Rahiras

A collection of 9 hymns, 4 by Guru Nanak, 3 by Guru Ram Das and 2 by Guru Arjun which are read at sunset as part of Nitnem.

Rahit Maryada

The Sikh Code of Conduct concieved by the Shromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee.

Rahit Nama

A manual of conduct for Khalsa Sikhs. There are a number of them by various Sikhs dating back to the eighteenth century.

Raj Karega Khalsa

The battle cry of the Sikhs during the rule of Banda Singh Bahadur meaning "The Khalsa shall rule". It is the concluding line of the daily prayer Ardas.

Rumala

The cloth which is used ceremonially to cover the Guru Granth Sahib.

SSS

Sach Khand

The realm of truth, the final stage of spiritual ascent where the believer becomes one with God.

Sadh Sangat

The Sikh congregation or community.

Sahibzadas

The four sons of Guru Gobind Singh who all died as marytrs to the Sikh faith. Ajit Singh, Jujhar Singh, Zorawar Singh, Fateh Singh.

Sahaj

The state of spiritual peace resulting from the attainment of union with God.

Sahaj Path

A non continuos reading of the entire Guru Granth Sahib over any period of time.

Sahib

Term of respect used for the Sikh Holy Book as well as applied to historical gurdwaras.

Sakhi

Story about a Guru.

Sangat

Holy congregation.

Sangrand

The first day of the month according to the indian calander. The reading of the relevant portion of the composition Barhmaha by Guru Nanak or Guru Arjun Dev relating to each month is read out.

Sant

A holy person or saint.

Sarbat Khalsa

A representative meeting of all the Sikhs to consider important matters related to the panth.

Saropa

A gift of honour presented by the Sikh community. Usually a length of cloth for tying a turban or a scarf worn over the shoulders.

Sarovar

The pool for bathing found at many gurdwaras.

Sat Guru

The supreme Guru, God.

Sat Sri Akal

The Sikh greeting meaning "Immortal God is Truth".

Satyug

An era in which Truth prevails, the opposite of Kalyug.

Seli

A woolen cord worn by Guru Nanak around his turban. It was worn as a symbol of living in the world but not in worldly matters. It was passed on to each successive Guru upto Guru Hargobind who chose to wear the symbol of two swords of meri & peri instead.

Seva

Service to ones fellow beings, a cornerstone of Sikhism.

Seva Panthi

A Sikh whose life is devoted to the service of the Sikh community.

Shabad

The religious hymns contained in Sikh scriptures.

Shaheed

Title used before the name of someone who has died for the Sikh faith as a martyr.

Shlok

Couplet found in the Guru Granth Sahib.

Shromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (S.G.P.C.)

Committee which overseas the administration of many Gurdwaras in Punjab, Haryana & Himachal Pradesh as well as involved in publication and education related to Sikhism.

Sikhi

Sikh teachings.

Sikhia

Advice given to the couple during the Sikh marriage ceremony.

Singh

Lion, the common last or middle name of male Sikhs. It is a compulsory last name for male Khalsa Sikhs.

Sodar

A composition of Guru Nanaks which is read by Sikhs at sunset as part of Rahiras.

Sukh Asan

The ceremony that takes place at the end of the day when the Guru Granth Sahib is formally closed for the night.

Sukhmani Sahib

A major composition of Guru Arjun found on page 262 of the Guru Granth Sahib.

Swayya

A group of hymns composed by Guru Gobind Singh and found in the Dasam Granth.

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TTT

Takht

A seat of Sikh authority, there are five gurdwaras which are designated as takhts.

Thambh Sahib

A pole or tower associated with a Guru.

Tankhaiya

A person who has committed a religious offence meriting punishment.

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ZZZ

Zafarnama

The Letter of Victory written by Guru Gobind Singh

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