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Was Dr W.H. McLeod right in his evaluation?


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I would like to discuss Dr W.H. McLeod's work. Please, clarify if his evaluation was right or he was just another missionary?

"Uncut hair was Jat custom,.. the bearing of arms, represented by the

dagger, was also a Jat practice,..." Hew McLeod

H McLeod alleged that Guru Hargobind took up the sword for no other reason than that the Jats compelled the Guru to fall in line with their

sword-happy savage instincts.

"Uncut hair was Jat custom,.. the bearing of arms, represented by the dagger, was also a Jat practice,..."

Please, do not make this discussion Jatt bashing thread. This thread is started to get the truth and please stick to topic. I'll invite all of our intelligent members.

Thank You!

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hey guys,

I believe the point here isnt' that a group of jatts came together and started singing boliyaan and guru sahib said "put jattan de balondhay bakray"...and changed the whole path of sikhi to reflect "jattism".

Mcleod, may have, referred to the sociological/cultural source of long hair at that time. My point being that the guru's employed attributes of common folk culture and since punjab was and has been largely agricultural, it could be that long hair...which jatts took from shiva...was employed by guru sahib....

now, I am not saying that this is the case, and sikhi is a byproduct of "jatt" influence. On the contrary, I am saying that there are elements of folk culture which could be attributed to "jats per se" that have been absorbed into sikhi, either through metaphors, practice, examples..etc

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Email from: Santokh Singh <santokh@worldonline.nl>

1 - Trumpp, McLeod and others - Dr Trilochan Singh

There are a number of good publications by learned Sikhs exposing

threadbare the evil intentions of E Trumpp, W H McLeod and others who have

intentionally misrepresented Sikhism. One of the most readable is "Ernest

Trumpp and W H McLeod - as Scholars of Sikh History, Religion and Culture"

by Dr Trilochan Singh (1919-1993).

Dr Trilochan Singh was fluent in Punjabi, Urdu, Persian, Sanskrit, Hindi,

Bengali and English!

His first work, - "The Sacred Writings of the Sikhs", a UNESCO publication,

1960 - was the first real presentation in English of the hymns in the Guru

Granth Sahib. Biographies of Guru Nanak, Guru Hari Kishan and Guru Teg

Bahadur followed. Then followed the wonderful "Hymns of Guru Teg Bahadur :

Songs of Nirvana", with a detailed commentary.

Dr Trilochan Singh lectured at Universities at home and in the US/UK. It

was during a visit to the UK in 1976-77 that he successfully pleaded for

the rights of the Sikhs to wear a Turban. He published a book, "The Turban

and Sword of the Sikhs" which received special mention in the House of

Lords, when the bill was finally presented. The UK victory led in turn to

the Canadian one.

With his last book, this learned Gursikh scholar demolished the edifice of

distortions and misrepresentations of Sikhism put up by Trumpp, McLeod, and the Piar/Pashaura Singhs - and exposed their mala fide intentions.

Dr Noel Q King opined in the Foreward:

"This is a work to likened to the genre, a Mirror to Princes. An honest,

clean- thinking Sikh somehow still unbrainwashed by western academic

method, with his mind saturated with traditional Sikh scholarship and his

life permeated with a praxis which goes back in unbroken succession to the Gurus themselves, is telling us something. He may seem innocent of our kind of critical demolition of the tradition as received but he is logical in his own kind of logic and is steeped in an understanding of the whole

literature in the original which no foreign scholar can hope to equal. He

is holding a mirror to certain persons, certain groups and saying, 'This is

how you look to a beholder.' Dr Trilochan Singh's book is not only 'A

Mirror to Princes', it is the presentation of a tragedy after the fashion

Kalidas, Aeschylus and Shakespeare... He comes into the struggle in a

manner reminiscent of his chivalrous forebears repelling the invaders in

the eighteenth century raining blows on all sides. It is a glorious effort

and Dr Singh is seen for who he is, a true scholar and a gentleman, a noble Knight of the Order of the Honourable Khalsa, the lion hearted".

Dr Singh never read these words, he died two days before the Foreword

arrived from Dr King. He had finished reading the final proofs, and was

discussing his book with the editor of 'The Sikh Courier' London, when he

breathed his last, pen in hand.

- pendu

"Ernest Trumpp and W H McLeod - as Scholars of Sikh History, Religion and Culture" - Dr Trilochan Singh

publisher - International Centre of Sikh Studies

1182 Sect 44B Chandigarh India 160047

2 - Trumpp, McLeod and others - Dr Trilochan Singh

" ....why did Trumpp and McLeod chose this spiritually blind,

intellectually corrupt, and highly conceited route? ... ."

Sikhism is attractive because of many sublime doctrines of universal

interest, and the many moral and spiritual values for which Sikhs and their

faith are admired all over the world. The aesthetic beauty, the poetry and

music which forms the backbone of Sikh Scripture, alone, is a vast field

of study. Add the profound mystical experiences of the Gurus, recorded by

the Gurus themselves, and the field widens infinitely. Many Christians,

Muslims, Buddhists and Hindus have tried, and succeeded in providing for

all who seek, the fruit of their labours, and thus a chance to gain some

insight to this new faith.

Yet, there have been some odd exceptions like Dr E Trumpp (1828-1885), Dr WH McLeod, who lives in New Zealand, the late Swami Dayanand (Arya-Samaj), and a coterie of "scholars", both in India and abroad. These have described Sikhs and Sikhism in a manner no ordinary person with even a rudimentary intellectual honesty and historical insight can ever comprehend.

If we ignore the materialistic and the politically motivated, why did

Trumpp and McLeod chose this spiritually blind, intellectually corrupt, and

highly conceited route?

Suzuki, in "Outline of Mahayana Buddhism" writes about such writers and

critics of religions other than their own: "The people who have had their thoughts and sentiments habitually trained by one particular set of religious dogma, frequently misjudge the value of those thoughts that are strange and unfamiliar to them. We may call this class of people bigots or enthusiasts. They may have fine religious and moral sentiments as far as their own religious training goes; but, when examined from a broader point of view, they are to a great extent vitiated with prejudices, superstitions, and fanatical beliefs, which since childhood, have been pumped into their receptive minds, before they were sufficiently developed and could form independent judgements."

"This fact so miserably spoils their purity of sentiments and obscures

their transparency of intellect, that they are disqualified to perceive and

appreciate whatever is good, true and beautiful in the so-called heathen

religions. This is the main reason why those Christian missionaries are

incapable of rightly understanding the spirit of religion generally -- I

mean, those missionaries who come to the East to substitute one set of

superstition for another."

The hostile critics who are convinced of the inferiority of the culture in

question, can give plainly and honestly without deliberate overcharging

what they conceive to be sound reason for their judgement. That too has its

use for us; hostile criticism of this kind is good for the soul and the

intellect, provided we do not allow ourselves to be afflicted, beaten down

or shaken from the upholding centre of our living faith and action.

Aurobindo states in "Foundations of Indian Culture":

But hostile criticism to be of any sound value must be criticism, not

slander and false witness, not vitriol-throwing; it must state the facts

without distortion, preserve consistent standards of judgement, observe a

certain effort at justice, sanity, measure...."

"Sanity, justice, measure are things altogether at a discount: a show-off

of the appearance of [dealing] staggering and irresistible blows, is the

object held in view, and for that anything comes in handy, -- the facts are

altogether misstated or clumsily caricatured, the most extraordinary and

unfounded suggestions advanced with an air of obviousness, the most

illogical inconsistencies permitted if an apparent point can be scored."

Such works can be excused, if they were by well-informed critics, and

thus an exception to the rule.

But the picture changes, when the works of these learned orientalists seem to be the fruit of a lifetime's passion, and ultimately turn out to be

intellectual and academic fakes and not critical expositions or scholarly

works in any sense of the word.

It is to this category, the works of Dr Ernest Trumpp and Dr W.H. McLeod

belong, and it is because of this common trait of these very learned

Christian scholars, that their works are studied together.

3 - Trumpp, McLeod and others - Dr Trilochan Singh

"The Adi Granth is a very big volume, but, incoherent and shallow in the

extreme, and couched at the same time in dark and perplexing language, in order to cover these defects...." Dr Ernest Trumpp.

In the Foreword, Dr Noel Q King provides critical, yet compassionate,

insight into the character of Dr Trumpp.

Ernest Trumpp, born 1828, a brilliant student of Theology, Greek, Latin,

followed later by Sanskrit, Sindhi, Urdu, Arabic and Ethiopic, had to flee

his homeland, Germany, because of his support for the liberal revolutions

of 1849. He got work in the East India Company Library, and was sent by the Church Missionary society to the land of his dreams, where he picked up Sindhi and Urdu.

In a pilgrimage visit to Jerusalem he met his first wife, who died within a

year. Broken in body and spirit, he crept home, remarried, and recovered

enough to return to India. Ill health forced him out again, till about ten

years later, the British government asked him to do a translation of the

Guru Granth Sahib.

Back in India against medical advice, in 1879, we learn how Ernest

Trumpp, replete in arrogance, cigar in mouth and feet on table, had

discussions over the contents of the Guru Granth Sahib, with subdued Sikh

giannis and granthis. The Sikhs were at the lowest point of their

humiliation then, after their defeat at the hands of the British invaders.

They were patient, knowing that no matter what, no matter how - a start had been made to tell the world the message of Nanak. But when he opened the Granth Sahib, still with cigar in hand, they promptly wrapped up the Holy Book, and left.

Dr Trilochan Singh writes that Trumpp would not learn Punjabi, well within

his capabilities, but got the assistance of two Brahmin Sanskrit scholars

instead. Later, the colonial government paid a Nirmala scholar and two

granthis to help him.

'Traditive = traduttire', 'the translator is a traitor', is an old Italian


Trumpp was also handicapped by his Christian missionary bias and extreme imagined inferiority of the religion he was studying. He was also made aware that his Imperialistic Government employers did not wish him to use authentic works of historians like J D Cunningham.

Trumpp's crudely prepared, partial -less than a quarter - translation of

the Guru Granth Sahib, appeared in 1877.

For about ten years the scholars committed to Imperialistic policies went

on praising Dr Trumpp for his "proving" that the languages used in the Guru Granth Sahib were vulgar and the Holy Book was shallow compared to the Christian Bible.

Meanwhile, a strong reaction set in against Trumpp and the work was

rejected by Sikhs of all shades and serious Western scholars of Sikh

Religion, history and culture. Within five years, eminent scholars like

Pincott and Candler made indepth studies of Sikh history, culture and

scriptures and wrote illuminating articles and books, paying tribute to the

Sikh Gurus.

Dr Ernest Trumpp went totally blind in 1884 and died deranged, in 1885 at

the age of fifty seven - "birtha janam siraan" slok 28 M9. He had also

thrown away one of the noblest possibilities a foreign scholar could have

been granted. Instead, he turned back to his Indo-Germanic book etymologies and to Sanskrit helpers, and used his God given talent and

skill, to misrepresent and condemn the religion he studied - thus setting

back, perhaps denying, its study to a whole generation.

4 - Trumpp, McLeod and others - Dr Trilochan Singh

".. McLeod .. has .. a lack of respect for truth and historical records.."

It was Dr Noel Q King who wrote these lines:

"While personally as I have known him, Dr McLeod is a perfect gentleman, in his these books he has not only shown a complete lack of courtesy and consideration and also lack of respect of truth and historical records, he has shown even greater lack of understanding of the ethical and mystical doctrines of Sikhism."

- Advanced Studies in Sikhism - ed. Jasbir S/Harbans S pg 312

In his Foreword to Dr Trilochan Singh's book, Dr Noel Q King reveals Hew

McLeod's background. The Presbyterian Church in South Island New Zealand - from which McLeod came - has been generally liberal, academic and non-proselyting. In the late sixties, they were genuinely seeking "a Christian Presence Among Other Religious". McLeod was selected and sent for deeper study to the School of Oriental and African Studies at London.

Western (European, UK and US) University thought is formed by interweaving high academic achievement - imperialism,

missionary interest with Post-Jewishness, Post-Christianity and Marxist

theory, [or have never practised any religion] among others [old racist ideologies] - in varying proportions.

McLeod became an "Enlightened" devotee of the ideals of the western

University - he is obedient to the truth as he sees it from within that

point of view.

This "Enlightenment" , of high academic endeavor:

has no need of a God-hypothesis - everything said on the divine and

revelation could only have been the product of humans and human thought, thus to be explained in non-supernatural terms;

and believes only critical and analytical scholarship can discover

historical truth - thus community belief and tradition are to be ignored,

even ridiculed.

And further, hidden below this academic facade, remain the deadliest

features of the clerical medieval University:

the desire to remake others in one's own image;

the conviction that there is one truth - and its (University's) servants

have the only methods for reaching it; and the need to bring all others by all means to that truth.

This particular "Enlightened" state precludes a believe in any religion -

Hew McLeod found it increasingly difficult to remain a believer. He was

sent to the missionary centre at Batala, India. There were some others

like him there, and these, with like minded scholars often frequenting the

University of California, Berkely, comprise the Berkely-Batala missionary


Hew McLeod, made a recent statement, "I have not been a missionary for many years. I am not a Christian, nor even a believer."

Dr Noel Q King then observes: "Certainly there is no one competent to do

deep research into Sikhism at Berkely at the present time (1993) or indeed for some time past."

"To be an historian.....means trying to look at history from some

[adjusted] standpoint that is [now] one's own, and that [which] is more

central , and therefore more objective than one's own is likely to

be.....Owing to the temporary predominance of the West over the

rest...there has been a tendency,...to ..take this western view of history

uncritically.." - Prof AJ Toynbee - Value of Oriental History for Historians.

On McLeod's qualifications, Dr Trilochan Singh writes:

Dr Hew McLeod knows some Punjabi, but as he [McLeod] wrote to me, just

sufficient to read simple prose like that of Janamsakhis, Sakhi Pothis and

Rehatnamas, which can be understood even by Punjabi housewifes with

elementary knowledge of Punjabi. For studying Sikh Scriptures like Adi

Granth, Dasam Granth, Vars and Kabits of Bhai Gurdas and the Persian works of Bhai Nand Lall, one requires a good working knowledge of Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabhramsa, Braj, Avdhi and other medievel languages and dialects, besides, of course, the various dialects of Punjabi. This is the equipment which Ernest Trumpp lacked and this is what Hew McLeod lacks and tempts him to lean heavily on conjectures and street gossip..."

5 - Trumpp, McLeod and others - Dr Trilochan Singh

".. the term founder is misleading for it suggests that the Guru [Nanak]

originated not merely a group of followers but also a school of thought, or

a set of teachings.." H McLeod - Evolution of the Sikh Community

It is not possible to provide in this short article the comprehensive

answers of Dr Trilochan Singh to the many ill-founded statements of McLeod. Other Sikh scholars have also effectively de-bunked the theories of the Berkely-Batala Group of hostile critics of Sikh religion, history and

culture. Only some major issues are addressed.

1. McLeod claims that Guru Nanak was not a prophet who founded a new

religion, Sikhism, but only a wandering Hindu Sant of "Nirgun School of

Poetry of North India."

Not only is prophet or sant not defined - nor apparently understood - by

McLeod, he also erroneously gives a higher status to Sants than to Bhaktas.

Guru Nanak reveals in his bani, again and yet again, that God is the

fountainhead of his doctrines - the revelation - and thus his prophethood.

"As the Word of the Lord comes to me, so do I utter, O Lalo."

- GGS 722

McLeod disregards the fact that the saints he claims to be the sources of

Guru Nanak's doctrine, themselves claim no doctrinal originality or canonic

worth - thus incapable of serving as sources for the doctrines.

2. McLeod does not depend on the doctrines of Sikhism found in the

authentic Sikh canon, Guru Granth Sahib, as is the universal practice of

theological enquiry.

Instead, he goes by banned apocrypha - writings or reports not considered genuine - like some janamsakhis or writings derived from heretical sects like Minas.

He projects these as true Sikh canon, and goes even a step further, and

demands of Sikhs that they should also consider this apocrypha as equal to the GGS.

3. Without a valid basis McLeod talks in the same strain about the Guru

borrowing concepts from other religious orders.

It can be convincingly demonstrated that most of the fundamental concepts of Sikhism are original and were totally unknown to religions before the advent of Sikhism.

One example is the use of figure 1 "EK". It indicates a one complete and

perfect UNIT. It is wrong to assert that it denotes "non-duality" or "the unity of God" which admits the concept of existence of diversity.

To the contrary, as indicated by the use of this figure at the opening of

the Canon, Guru Nanak is positive, categoric and dynamically affirmative of ONE God.

Also, no vaishnav bhakta doctrinally accepts the possibility of devotion in


"The Yogis, celibates, vegetarians and hermits

- have no knowledge of the limits of the Imperishable Lord"

-GGS 867

4. McLeod attempted to question the authenticity of the Kirtarpur Bir. He

claims that it is a copy of another collection of writings, referred to as

the "Banno Bir".

It is a well known fact that McLeod spent a few minutes at most, examining the Kirtarpur Bir. Not only did he not avail himself of this opportunity, he actually complained that the Birs are inaccessible to scholars. He was probably unaware of the factual work and reports of Sahib Singh, Mahan Singh and others, that prove that the "Banno Bir" was compiled after 1642 and that the Banno story associated with it is a myth - for the Kirtarpur Bir was ready in 1604.

With that, all the other spurious conjectures of McLeod based on "missing"

hymns are exposed for what they are.

5. H McLeod spun theories (i) that Guru Nanak's followers, Nanak-panthis,

split after Guru Angad, and (ii) Guru Amar Das and Guru Ram Das

re-introduced Hindu ideals - claims based yet again on conjecture.

(i) The oneness of thought and Spirit of all ten Gurus is affirmed by the

last Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, in his writings.

Foolish and ignorant persons

consider all Sikh Gurus to be different.....

Few enlightened saints and seers

know them to be one in inner being and spirit.

- Bachitar Natak Adhya 5 Verse 10

Bhai Nand Lall reaffirms this in Jot-Bigas, and so does Kavi Sainapati in Gur Sobha Granth.

In the Mughal records and in the writings of non-Sikh scholars, all Sikhs

are referred to as Nanak-panthis - even up to Banda Bahadur.

(ii) Guru Amar Das and Guru Ram Das re-introduced Hindu practices of

pilgrimage by building the Baoli Sahib at Goindwal, and the Sacred Pool and Hari Mandir, thus apparently ceasing to believe in "interior pilgrimage" - according to Hew McLeod.

One typical verse discouraging useless ritualistic pilgrimage, by the Third

Master, faithfully and entirely reflecting the teachings of Nanak says that

".. those going on pilgrimage with hypocrisy in their hearts,

only increase their impurities of egoism.." - GGS 116 Mahala 3.

The interior pilgrimage,...when one bathes in it,...all impurities are


..and this is bathing mind, heart and soul within the Immortalizing pool of

Nectar (Amritsar) - GGS Mahal 4 Vadhans Shl:

The Baoli Sahib at Goindwal built by Guru Amar Das has 84 steps,

necessitated that whoever bathes in it has to meditate on the Japji at

every step to complete his inner ablution.

The Gurus never gave up their doctrine of inner pilgrimage under any


6 - Trumpp, McLeod and others - Dr Trilochan Singh

"Uncut hair was Jat custom,.. the bearing of arms, represented by the

dagger, was also a Jat practice,..." Hew McLeod

6. H McLeod alleged that Guru Hargobind took up the sword for no other

reason than that the Jats compelled the Guru to fall in line with their

sword-happy savage instincts.

His "proof" is based on an utterly clumsy and mutilated - dishonest and

wrong thus - translation of a verse by Bhai Gurdas Var 26 pauri 24. He

quotes this verse in two of his books, "The Sikhs" and "Who is a Sikh?".

Ironically, Bhai Gurdas wrote it to uphold that only the slanderers of Guru

Hargobind thought in such a way!

This is revealed beyond doubt, in the last two lines.

McLeod not only distorts, he also leaves out the last all important line,

for good measure.

#1 The earlier Gurus sat peacefully in dharamsalas,

this one roams the land.

Lines #1 to #6 are in similar vein, the correct translation of #7 and #8


#7 The truth about Guru Hargobind

can never be clouded by these false allegations;

The lotus feet of Hargobind

still attract the Sikhs like honey-bees.

#8 Guru Hargobind endures the unendurable (ajar ajare);

he never reveals his inner spiritual power and greatness.

- Bhai Gurdas Var 26 pauri 24

7. McLeod again credits the Jats for persuading Guru Gobind Singh to

include hair and kirpan in the uniform of the Khalsa.

"Uncut hair was Jat custom,.. the bearing of arms, represented by the

dagger, was also a Jat practice,..."

No reference in support of this theory is made available to us.

In none of the purely Jat states like Haryana, Bharatpur etc, have the Jats

been distinguished for applying any sanctity to hair, beard or the sword.

8. For definitions of the concept of True Guru, true Sikh in Sikh

scriptures and the place of professional classes and castes in Sikh

society, McLeod relies heavily on the opinions of various individuals he

meets - from a Delhi cab driver to scholars having Sikh names, but openly

committed to Marxism, communalism, hedonism, naked atheism and occupying prestigious chairs in the universities with the express connivance of the Delhi Rulers.

Sikhs are painted as a Hindu Sect, tribalistic peasantry, politically

noisy, and morally and spiritually bankrupt.

"When dealing with the beliefs, ritual practices of the Sikhs - be they

religious or political - it is always worthwhile to constantly remind

ourselves that we are fundamentally dealing with the peasantry and the

world view of this social class has historically always been very different

from the other social classes." HS Oberoi - Paper read at Berkely, Feb

1987 pg 28

In conclusion, the self-contradictions, the abuse of historical facts, and

other misstatements are so glaring and shocking, that scholars who know

about this period (1000 - 1500 AD), can easily see through the ugly game of Hew McLeod and his Group.

Those who do not have access to authentic sources and literature on Sikhism - especially the youth - are either

upset by the confusion thus created about the generally accepted

impressions of Sikhs and Sikhism, or feel demoralised believing that there must be some hidden disgraceful things about Sikhs and their religion - which H McLeod (and his supporters) are slowly revealing to the world, or are both upset and demoralised.

It is to this group really, that this humble effort is dedicated.

- pendu

"Ernest Trumpp and W H McLeod - as Scholars of Sikh History, Religion and Culture" - Dr Trilochan Singh

publisher - International Centre of Sikh Studies

1182 Sect 44B Chandigarh India 160047

further reading:

Advanced Studies in Sikhism

- Papers contributed at Conference of Sikh Studies

Los Angeles Dec 1988

ed Dr. Jasbir Singh Mann, Harbans Singh Saraon

publisher - Sikh Community of N America

PO Box 16635 Irvine Ca 92713 USA

Invasion of Religious Boundaries,

ed. Dr. Jasbir Singh Mann, Surinder Singh Sodhi and Gurbax Singh.

Planned Attack on Ad Sri Guru Granth Sahib

Review of Text and Meaning of Guru Granth Sahib by Pishaura Singh

by 29 international Sikh scholars,

ed. Giani Bachiter Singh Advocate.

Sikhism - Its Ideology and History

ed Daljeet Singh, Kharak Singh

Institute of Sikh Studies

959 Sect 59 SAS Nagar

Chandigarh, India 160059

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  • 1 month later...

Unfortunately mcleod relies heavily on some very dubious sources............

read The Sikh revolution by Jagjit Singh.....................

............All the Symbols of sikhism are those that are associated with royalty...............

..............Buddha was a Prince and wore long hair............he was not a Jatt.................the Khatri/Khashatree's were not averce to wearing long hair..............or bearing arms..................their surnames Bhall (Spear) etc reflect their military heritage...................wearing long hair is an ancient royal custom.............

..................the Guru's were not that fickle as to just make things up as they went along...........................................

..........Note that Mcleod is no expert in Anthropology or of Ancient Indian Customs..................a look of ancient Indian mythology shows men of long hair............

..........anyway..........hindu Jatts don't wear long hair............neither do Muslim Jatts.............it does not stack up............

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Sorry if this has been mentioned before, but I remember reading that in an interview Mcloud admitted that he had no real evidence for the ''jatt hypothesis''. He said it was conjecture and had put it out there so people could think about 'alternate explanations' . He also did not apologise.

Sorry about not having a source, it's been awhile since i read it.

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  • 2 years later...

I feel that the Sikh world and their reaction to McLeod (re: the infamous "psycho-analysis!" et al) is a sadly reflection of our own fickleness. Whatever his motivations, rather than cheap personality attacks and propaganda, surely it would be more wise for Sikhs to actually answer the issues with due regard as treatment as academic discussion of history and scripture.

With regard to the custom of Kesh and Jats - in addition to what Randip Singh has already stated, it certainly doesn't stack up given that Shivite customs that are the hall-mark of neo-Jatt pseudo-scholarly would have actually related to matted hair which is not the same as keeping Kesh as ordained for Sikhs, moreover, given that many Jatts - Hindus, Muslims or Sikh, do not maintain Kesh, whilst keeping hold of many other traits which can be linked to Jatt heritage (Jathera etc) also points towards this not being an exclusive Jatt custom.

As per the Royal linkage of Kesh, yes this is true, however I would personally go further and differentiate between the Khatri Kings who would have worn their Kesh long and flowing and the Rishis who would have had the top knot as modern-era Singhs do - the latter seems to be more in accordance with our wearing of the Keshas as sacred, signifier of the image, rank and status of a Rishi. I quite like the late Sirdar Kapur Singh's thoughts on this topic which speaks of the same.

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Britshers tried to the concept of martial race to let Sikhs be racial and do not spread in other parts as they have seen Sikhs doing rebellion in West UP,bihar,Bengal or assam,who all were native.

most Jaats were Sultanis in Majha before becoming Sikh and they did cut thiet hairs.And had they been Hindus as we them in Abohar or say in Jammu or himchal,they undergo Mundan.

In Haryan Rajsthan or west UP,das did not see any thing like Jatts by Jatta of lord shiva and so uncut hairs as per Jatts,Rather uncut hairs are more to do with Aryans or Brahmins and Anti Jain/budhist things.And Jatts as per western guys are more sythians.

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