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Amarjeet Singh_1737

Hari Singh Nalwa And Afghanistan.

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I don't know why this idea of a conquest of Afghanistan persists?

He consolidated his power at a time when Sikh confidence and resources were at their peak. In addition to this, Sikh victory and dominance had caused non-Sikhs to join their standard too. I'd say M. Ranjit Singh's liberal policies towards Muslims in his kingdom and Sikh strength took the wind out of the endeavours of Panjab based jihadists. I'm sure the Muslim experiences in Panjab with an emerging and proficient Khalsa deterred them from being too enthusiastic about challenging Sikhs. Basically he had a relatively stable base to operate from. Finally someone who actually got to the point.

An army trained by Napoleonic generals and Sikh valour and experience.

Logistically, carrying out a war so far from home. A dubious ally in Pakistan. Completely different mindsets between whites and Afghans - less so between Panjabis and Afghans. There was also a religious dimension in Nalwa's time between both parties whereas Nato can NEVER be considered to be a 'Christian' organisation.

Very little in my opinion. Sikhs were genuinely defending themselves, Nato is sticking its nose in to contain a monster it helped create to fight Ruskies.

Military prowess can be lost and gained at an surprisingly sudden pace. Sikhs are a shadow of their former selves. NATO is opportunist but cowardly, look how they dither in facing Russia over the Ukraine.

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People should also factor in that frankly speaking, people like Nalwa and especially Avitabile (who was the governor of Peshawar) were not constrained in the actions they took against people who challenged them.

In the current conflict NATO/The west have turned it into some theo-politico battle along the lines of 'fundamentalism versus civilisation' (essential trying to portray the conflict as simple 'good versus bad'). In Nalwa's time, things weren't so full of spin like today. So the old battles were straight contests of strength whilst these modern ones have all manner of undertones that relate to some image the west is trying to portray.

Avitabile (on the other hand) was ruthless as an administrator - bordering on psychotic. I remember reading a contemporary source which said he'd have a dozen people hanged every morning before breakfast. He even had someone executed for killing a cow; where M. Ranjit Singh said he should have been more lenient.

People were less full of shit then unlike today.

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Nato can NEVER be considered to be a 'Christian' organisation.

While Nato may not be a Christian body and it can be argued maybe Afghans or who ever the extremist faction being fought in Afghanistan are not "true" muslims and can be discounted as such we have to take into account certain perceptions. Such as this one over here: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/monitoring/media_reports/1636782.stm

The word "crusade" doesn't seem to be applied in a metaphorical way to imply persecution but reference to a repetition in the original crusades which took place to regain Christiandom from Muhammden invaders. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crusades

The perception of that from the Muhammden perspective was one of invasion and in a barbaric way.

Have a read of this brainwashed rant https://uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20111103004200AAUb1dW

A perception has to be present especially from the vast rustics of Afghans who have a lower level of academic scholarship than Punjabis do, to appreciate who the enemy actually presented before them is, while an infidel can be anyone who doesn't profess to muhammden doctrine he may have different rights hence a perception of them changes on their particular belief system. Although this perspective might not be a universal perception it can't be easily dismissed as not existing.

Edited by JatherdarSahib

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The last comment is citing a reference that is not accurate or factual. There have been many alliances between pashtuns and indians over the centuries and here is an important quote from an afridi pathan (might be another tribe but a sardar nevertheless) to maharaja of jaipur:

“My tribe has been connected with your august family from olden times. My ancestors, through the patronage and mediation of the late Maharajah Maan Singh, became mansabdars of the Emperor. I wish to present myself before you, enter your service and thus manifest our old devotion.” – Bhai Khan Maral

The Mughal nobles in his army advised Maan Singh against pitched battles with the Pashtuns but the Raja did just that and dealt them a brutal defeat at which point the tribals retreated into the hills; Kunwar Jagat Singh, eldest son of the Raja, led the van in this egagement. 

 

In 1580 CE, some prominent Muslim officers of Akbar, displeased with his liberal religious policies, started to conspire against him. Qazi Muhammad Yazdi declared it the duty of every Muslim to rebel against Akbar. In Bihar and Bengal they declared Mirza Hakim, Akbar's stepbrother and Governor of Kabul, to be the emperor. Akbar sent armies to Bihar and Bengal to crush this rebellion, while he himself started towards Kabul; Man Singh with him. On March 8, 1581, Akbar reached Machhiwara and soon arrived on the banks of River Indus, he then sent an advance force led by Man Singh to Kabul. Although, Akbar's army was hesitating to cross the swelling Indus River, Man Singh was able to cross it first followed by troops. Hearing the news Mirza Hakim fled to Gurband. Following the army, Akbar himself arrived at Kabul on August 10, 1581. Hakim was pardoned by Akbar, but his sister "Bakhtunissa Begum" was appointed Governor of Kabul. After Akbar returned to Fatehpur Sikri; Bakhtunissa remained as the nominal head of state, while Hakim acted as the Governor (Hakim died in July, 1582). Kabul was annexed by the Mughal Empire and Man Singh was appointed Governor. He remained in Kabul for some years and built a fortress, used by succeeding Mughal Governors. Man Singh brought many talented men with him when he returned from Kabul. Some of their descendants still live in Jaipur.

Again in 1585 CE, some Afghan tribes rose against the Mughal empire. The Yusufzai and "Mandar" tribes were the main ones among them. Akbar sent an army under Zain Khan, Hakim Abul Fateh and Raja Birbal to control these revolting tribes. However, they failed to control the revolting Afghans and Raja Birbal, friend of Akbar and one of his Navratnas was also killed in the battle with Afghans. Akbar then sent Raja Todar Mal to crush the revolt and called Raja Man Singh to help Todar Mal. Todarmal had some success in controlling the rebellious Afghan tribes, but the real source of the revolt was behind the Khyber Pass. It was hard to cross this pass which was dominated by Afghan "Kabailies". Man Singh was accompanied by "Rao Gopaldas" of Nindar in this expedition, who bravely made way for Mughal army in the pass. After crossing the pass Man Singh decisively defeated five major tribes of Afghans including Yusufzai and "Mandar" tribes. The flag of Amber was changed from "Katchanar" (green climber in white base) to "Pachranga" (five colored) to commemorate this victory. This flag continued in use until accession of Jaipur state in India. This permanently crushed the revolt and the area remained peaceful thereafter.

In 1586 CE, Akbar sent another army under Raja Bhagwant Das, father of Kunwar Man Singh to win Kashmir. Kashmir was included in the Mughal Empire and made a Sarkar (district) of Kabul province. Man Singh and his father Raja Bhagwant Das are reputed to have brought the technology of cannon production to Amber.

 

Kachwahas and Bhattis have been known to attack afghans and defeating them past khyber as retaliation for invading Punjab. 

Raja Jagat Singh Pathania led successful expeditions up to badakhshan and bukhara. 

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Towards the end of 1586, the Mohmand and Ghoria tribes in Peshawar rose in rebellion under one Jalaluddin 'Jalalah' Taraki. The Brahman, Birbal, could not suppress it nor could the Khatri Vaishya, Todarmal, and Taraki continued to create trouble; but the operations of Raja Maan Singh Kachawaha aided by Rawat Gopal Das of Nindar against the Taraki tribe induced even the Orakzais and Afridis into submission. Rawat Gopal Das severed the head of one Katloo Khan during a pitched battle which took place in the Kunar Valley. 

Raja Jagat Singh Pathania would later be sent to chastise Jalalah's younger son, Kareem Dadh Khan. When the Raja reached Naghaz, all the pashtun tribes, except Lakan and two others with whom Kareem Dadh was allied, submitted. When, however, they saw that their safety lay in surrendering to the Rajputs, they seized the culprit along with his family and handed them over to the troops. A formidable soldier, Jagat Singh Pathania was mainly responsible for driving out the Persians from Kabul as well as conquering Zameen-e-Dawar, a district located northwest of Qandahar and inhabited by the Alizai, Barakzai and Durrani tribes.

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Raja Jagat Chand saw to it that the state reached the zenith of its prosperity and his name is, even now, remembered with pride and respect. The Raja, at the head of 14,000 Rajputs raised in his own country, conducted a most difficult but successful enterprise against the Uzbeks of the Balkh and Badakhshan provinces of Afghanistan. They stormed mountain passes, made forced marches over snow, constructed redoubts by their own labour, the Raja himself taking an axe like the rest, and bore up against the tempests of that frozen region as firmly as against the fierce and repeated attacks of the Uzbeks. Raja Jagat Singh’s grandson, Raja Mandata, held at bay the Afghans of the Bamiyan and Ghorband regions. 

जगता राजा भगता राजा बस देव का जाया
सिन्धु मारे सागर मारे हिमाचल देवा पाया 
आकाश को अरबा किता तान जगाता कहाया 

"Jagat Raja, the devout Raja, son of Bas Dev. He conquered the country beyond the Indus, he pitched his camp on the Snow Mountains and pointed his guns towards the heavens, and therefore was he called Jagata!"

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