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Soul, Death and Metempsychosis in Sikhism

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Soul, Death and Metempsychosis in Sikhism

Maj. Gurmukh Singh

The Sikh Review


Death is the logical and inevitable consequence of birth. It is finis of the biological process called life. Yet it is strange that while man has acquired a great deal of knowledge about birth and life, he knows precious little of death. One thing, however, is certain, death is inevitable. Birth can be controlled and life can be managed, but death is entirely intractable. Regulated life and medical means may delay it, but, ultimately, it can neither be evaded nor avoided. Death is condition precedent of birth1 and is unpredicatable.2 Destruction is a must if creation is to continue and life is to sustain its freshness and vigour. Seed must drop and bury itself in order that a fresh plant may take birth. The flower must shed its petals for the sake of fruition, the fruit must drop off for the birth of the tree.3 Change is the order of Nature and the wish of God.4 Man is experiencing the brunt of imbalance between birth and death-rates of human population, particularly in underdeveloped countries.

Death is generally regarded as a dreadful reality. But it is not always so, nor for everyone. Those who, instructed by the Guru, keep the name of God in their mind do not fear death. When all somatic systems stop functioning irretrievably, it amounts to somatic or biological death. The body becomes inert, stiff and susceptible to gradual decay. But the entire body does not die all at once because different cellular systems do not stop functioning simultaneously. That is why some parts of a dead body excised within a limited period are found still serviceable enough to be transplanted in other living bodies; or sometimes, patients lie in coma for long periods, practically dead but not dead enough to be declared as such. In some cases, as in paralysis, a part of the body dies while the body as a whole remains alive. And, rarely, it also happens that a person medically declared dead shows signs of life, or may even regain consciousness. Should we, therefore, conclude that each organ has a separate life of its ow

n - separate animate existence, possessing separate animating spirit? Science has not discovered the whole truth yet. Will it ever? We do not know. Recently biological engineering and cloning has further complicated the questions of life and death.

Explanation provided by religion is simple, yet complex: simple, because it presents a mystery of life matching the mystery of death, and complex because it makes the mysteries of life and death more mysterious. This explanation is based on a presumed entity, soul, an animating spirit, corresponding to energy of material science, but not produced by any element other that itself. This soul, or even an infinitesimal part of it, entering a body by its own, animates the latter and keeps it going until, again by its own will, the soul leaves the body, which is then reduced to dead matter. The continued appearance of signs of life in dead body for some more time, is explained by analogy of an oil lamp, where, even after the flame has been extinguished smoke and smell persists for a while.

Soul is an axiomatic concept, inexplicable logically or scientifically, but widely believed by philosophers of different religions, although they differ as to its true nature and mode of functioning. For example, some accept soul only in humans, while for others all living beings (and even plants) live by virtue of soul. There are others who believe in a single Supreme soul which is immanent throughout the cosmic creation, and still others who hold that matter (prakriti) itself has the capacity to create life in the presence of another entity, purusa. For these speculative systems this concept, soul, is arrived at, or is revealed, intuitively and is sustained by faith. The idea of immortal soul and life in the hereafter palliates to some extent the fear of death. Rig Veda, the oldest and the most sacred scripture of the Aryans, makes no reference to the law of karma and transmigration of the soul, though continuation of the soul after death is accepted. "Vedic cremation hymns plead before the god of fire not

to burn the ajobhaga (unborn) and amritya (deathless) part of the deceased, which would go to yamloka (nether world), pitraloka (land of the ancestors) or devloka (abode of gods, paradise) according to evil, good or virtuous deeds, respectively of the person?s present life.9 The Arya Samaj, similarly believes, following the founder?s "back-to-the-Vedas" call, that jiva (soul) after suffering/enjoying the consequences of its karma in the other worlds, returns to the mrituloka, this world of the mortals.10

Early Upanisadic sages emphasized two-fold nature of the single supreme soul - the real or transcendent; and the empirical or embodied. According to Mandukya Upanisad: "Om, this is immortal. Its explanation is this all; what was, what is, and what will be, all is verily `Omkar? ?. For this all is Brahman; this soul is Brahman ?." The Taittiriya Upanisad equates soul (jivatma) with the Supreme Soul (Paramatma; Brahman) on the one hand, and on the other hand, with mind and knowledge (i.e. consciousness). "A person who knows the bliss of Brahman from which words together with the mind return without comprehending it, is never afraid. This mind is the embodied soul of the former. Different from that (soul) which consists of mind is another inner soul which consists of knowledge?.12

Further, in the same Upanisad, the author says: "He (the Supreme Soul) desired: `Let me become many, let me be born?. He performed tapas. Having performed austerity, He created all this whatsoever, Having created it, He even entered it ? (He was now) with form and formless, defined and not defined, true and (comparatively) untrue - all this whatsoever was true (absolutely) ? 13 Another Upanisad, Prasnopanisad, has this to say: "from the soul is born this life (prana). As a shadow by man, so this (soul) is expansion of that (Brahman)."14

From this idea of soul as an extension of the Supreme Soul, the theories of individualised soul jivatma, and its transmigration were gradually developed by authors of Brahmans, Aranyakas and Upanisads. "Even the doctrine of karma has not been systematically elaborated in early Upanisads. It is regarded as something not to be spoken of openly (Brihadaranyaka, 3.2.13). As for the doctrine of rebirth, its first clear indications are seen in a passage in the Brihadaranyaka (6. 2.15-16) where it is mentioned as one of the three eschatological alternatives.15 But once the theory was fully formulated, it became so popular in India that even Buddhism, which accepts neither atma nor paramatma, believes in the endless movements and changes and suffering of the "mind" in the succession of deaths and rebirths from the beginningless time until men, following the astamarga (the eight-fold path), achieves nirvana.16 (liberation)

Sankhya Yoga, another old school of philosophy, also does not make any reference to soul or supreme soul and considers the world as the outcome of the conjunction of two ultimates - prakriti, the uncaused, eternal, changeable, independent matter, and purusa, also uncaused and eternal but changeless, inactive, nonproductive yet discriminating pure consciousness. Each body has its separate purusa, and it would appear that purusa of Sankhya yoga is perhaps the equivalent of individualised soul of other philosophical schools; but, in Sankhya, "purusa" is explicitly said to be that which neither initiates action nor ever changes. Thus the sankhya-karika clearly testifies purusa to an ultimate principle other than matter which co-exists within our experienced world and is somehow greater than this observed world.17 Elsewhere it is said that "in reality no one is bound, no one is released, similarly no one transmigrates. Only prakriti in its various forms migrates, is bound and is released.18 But, again, a subtle bo

dy (suksmasarira) is postulated which is even described as capable of transmigration.27 "This subtle body, previously arisen, unconfined, constant, inclusive of mahat (the Great One) through the tanmatras (the five subtle essences corresponding to the five senses), a linga (unconscious body) free from experience transmigrates while endowed with bhavas (fundamental psychic inclinations, urges or strivings)."27 "This thirteenfold subjective psychic instrument (suksmasarira)? is covered with an entity capable of retaining a basic sense of identity even while transmigrating."28

However, the final Sankhyan goal, kaivalya, is not the liberation of this transmigrating suksmasarira but "the realization of the total and absolute freedom of purusa."19 who has throughout been an inactive, independent, autocratic spectator, a witness to prakrti?s activities.

Transmigration in these schools, it appears, was restricted to rebirth only as humans so that the soul, consciousness mind or purusa-in-linga, could progress gradually towards moksa (liberation), nirvan or kaivalya. It was later that other species were included in the cycle of transmigration. (It is not clear how the figure of 8,400,000 species was arrived at) Katha Upanisad where dialogue between Nachikets and Yama (god of death or Death itself) is related, brings in the possibility of passing through inorganic lives too. Says yama to Nachiketa, "Some enter the womb in order to have a body, as organic being, others go into inorganic matter, according to their work, according to their knowledge.20 However, this idea of transmigration of soul contradicts what Yama has been made to say earlier in this very Upanisad and what is the general thrust of the entire Vedanta literature, viz, the Advait (non-dual) theory of a single soul, Brahman.

The acceptance of transmigration will mean acceptance of multiple soul like the multiple purusa of the Sankhya school and will comprise belief in the monotheistic nature of the Ultimate Absolute. The claim of unity in duality or multiplicity in Vedanta will then sound hollow. Dr. E. Roer has noted this deviation in Katha Upanisad which he suspects to be the result of the influence of Sankhya or yoga schools, and even that of the Buddhists, if not of Charvaks.21

Guru Nanak was obviously conversant with these old schools of religious philosophy each claiming its to be the last word on the Ultimate Truth. In typical humility, he conceded that what he knew for certain was that he did not know; "even if I knew, I could not describe that which is ineffable.22 This utterance proves that he really did know, as is the Upanisadic dictum: "Who soever knows that he does not know Him, knows Him.23 He took over several concepts, besides the idiom and phraseology, of traditional Indian religions, but in doing so, he so modified them as to make them distinctly different. For example, he took over the Upanisadic concept of a single Ultimate source of the entire existence, but he refused to treat the phenomenal reality as illusion, and introduced instead the doctrine of "immanence of the Transcendent One" which made the Creator?s creation also true.24

He adopted the devotional worship of the Vaisnava Bhakti movement, but rejected their belief in incarnation and idol worship. He and his successor Gurus frequently used in their hymns proper nouns such as Hari, Rama, Mohan, Syam and Narhari, but these referred - not to various Hindu deities - but to the one Creator who created all, including these exalted worthies. Prefixing the numeral 1 to the primordial Om was Guru Nanak Dev?s innovation unprecedented in history of religion. It eliminated once for all the possibility of duality, trinity or multiplicity of Godhead.

Guru Nanak retained the doctrine of karma,25 the theory of transmigration of soul 26 and the idea of 8.4 million species.27 But he reconstructed these concepts in such a way that the soul shed much of its mystery, death its dread, and karma its rigour; and in the hands of his successors, even transmigration became somewhat doubtful. According to the Sikh Gurus "the entire intricate phenomena, including soul, life or self are but the manifest forms of the Imperceptible One. They are like waves that crop up from water only to merge into water again.28 He himself is Maya. He is his own shadow; He himself is the created world to which He himself is attached.29 "Everything is You, my Dear One!30 I am a sacrifice to your power manifest in nature."40. "He is himself the slayer and himself the slain. He himself creates, himself sets up and himself uproots"31 "None whatsoever is born, none whatsoever dies: He performs His own frolics."32 "He himself is the earth, himself the mythical bull (bearing it) and himself is H

e the sky or ether. He himself reveals true virtues. He himself is the virtuous one, himself labour and himself the labourer."42 "Master and his slave are one and the same; (in raising the slave thus) the Master only exalted himself."43 In fact, "man, a mere handiwork, cannot understand the Master craftsman whatever is His Will (hukum), Nanak! comes to pass."33

Hukam (lit. order, command), the Divine will, is another original concept introduced by Guru Nanak Dev. It is synonymous with the Divine himself. Hukam may be interpreted as Divine Law which subsumes all laws of Nature, physical, physiological, chemical and psychological, as well as moral ethical. Japuji, the early morning prayer, which is placed at the head of the Sikh Scripture, describes hukam in the opening stanzas. After defining the Ik Onkar as truth eternal, Guru Nanak Dev proceeds:

How to demolish the wall of falsehood?

How can one in truth abide?

By following the Divine Will and pleasure -

Adds Nanak alongside.

And the next stanza continues:

Hukam causes all forms phenomenal,

yet Hukam itself is indescribable;

Out of Hukam come all the selves,

Out of Hukam flow all the honours;

By Hukam are some lowly, others higher,

By Hukam are all pain and pleasure;

By Hukam are a few blessed,

While others to wandering sentenced;

None is spared; to Hukam are all committed,

By perceiving Hukam, O Nanak: ego gets demitted.

And the next stanza again ends with:

Having put Hukam on the job, the ordainer

Smiles, O Nanak! Free of all care.45

On the Nature?s law of cause and consequence are based the doctrine of karma and theory of transmigration of soul. According to the traditional Indian view, jivatma the individual soul, pure light and immortal in itself, is different from the Maha or Param Atma called Brahman, though its source is in the latter. This soul becomes, on embodiment, oblivious of its divine origin and getting smeared with imperfection of the body becomes a partner in body?s good or bad actions whose consequences it must inevitably suffer, and must, on the death of the present body, migrate to another body, where, while undergoing the consequences of the deeds of the previous life, it commits fresh acts whose consequences it would suffer during the next life. Thus the cycle of birth, death and rebirth continues irresistibly until the jiva achieves, through proper religious conduct, penitence and austerities, moksa or nirvan.

Guru Nanak Dev while accepting the doctrine of Karma juxtaposed with it his own concepts of hukam and nadar (lit. glance of Grace). While the former means God?s will and pleasure, the latter signifies God?s compassion, mercy or grace. This means that the doctrine of karma is not an indenendent, immutable law, and that its working far from being inevitable, is subject to God?s pleasure (raza or bhana).God being omnipotent can, if he so pleases, erase the effect of karma. Guru Nanak Dev says: "if a jiva makes friends with someone other than God, he suffers downfall and death. But by God?s nadar (compassionate glance) he is liberated and is united with Him."34 "If the Lord so pleases (even) the fallen are liberated,"47 says Guru Arjun Dev.

Secondly, for a person who has so firm a faith in God that he dedicates all his actions to him, the doctrine of karma will not be applicable, because he can plead - with Guru Arjan Dev: "What at all can a man do? He acts as the Lord desires to make him act."35 Man if he could, would appropriate everything to himself, but as it is, he can do only what the Lord desires. If he is immersed in sin, this is due to his ignorance.Had he the knowledge, he would certainly save himself. Deluded by misconception he wanders all around and so does his mind. If such a person the Lord pleases to favour, he may join with nam-simran (remembrance of God?s Name)"48

Thirdly, according to Guru Nanak Dev, "all this is the Creator?s sport,"36 and Guru Arjun Dev elaborates."He is the efficient cause: whatever He desires happens:"37 He can instantly create and instantly demolish: creation, sustenance and re-absorption are by His will (hukam)?He, the Lord of both the worlds, the Omniscient one, enjoys his own sport: what He pleases He gets done:Nanak Can see no one else. Tell me what can man do? He make him do what He desires?(Man?s) soul and body both are His property, He, the Perfact Brahman, shines in everybody: all this is His own handiwork: Nanak Lives only to see His glory. Man?s might is not his own: God is the Lord of causes and actions of all. The poor creature (jiva) simply obeys: happens that which He desires?The Playful one sometimes dances in various forms and sometimes He sleeps throughout day and night: sometimes He is horrendously enraged and sometimes He becomes the dust of everyone?s feet. At different times He plays the part of a great king, a lowly beggar,

a defamed person, a gentleman, a savant, an ascetic, a pilgrim, a preaching divine. Sometimes He becomes an ant or insect and sometimes an elephant, or any other creature. Thus He roams in various births or species, Like a mimic He appears in different grabs and makes the creation dance to His own tunes. Only that which He desires happens. There is none other than He, O Nanak:"50

Elsewhere Guru Arjun Dev says: "poor jiva is but a wooden puppet: the puppeteer knows (how it is supposed to dance): it will be dressed as dictated by the needs of the puppeteer?s play."38 The Creator has many types of habitats (i.e. species) under His guard: the poor jiva shall reside where he wills it to."51 To quote Guru Nanak Dev, again: "You are the creeper, you the flower, you the flower sucking bee, and you the all three together?The forests are green and trees laden with flowers, and you are enjoying their fragrance. You are the prakrti (kavala) and you the purusa (kant): you, having set them up the word, ravish them. You are the calf, you the cow and you the milk: you are the house, you the support and you the entire body. "You are the action and you the actor:?you are the preceptor and you the thinker. You, the doer, watch over your own deeds: and you give to innumerable creatures light and sustenance?"39 And at another place: "He Himself makes us perform actions, good or otherwise, and Himself firm

s up devotion."40

If all this is true (and there is no reason to doubt what the above - quoted verses mean, viz, the monistic aspect of Sikh monotheism), there is hardly any place for individuated souls and metempsychosis in Sikhis.

There is, then, Guru Nanak Dev?s verse: "Metempsychosis is for those tradesmen who have built up a market (of cults and garbs) Those who have cultivated love for Truth in their minds stay firm glorifying the True One." And the couplet immediately following these lines is: "Worldly karma, O Nanak! is a tree bearing fruits immortalizing as well as poisonous. The creator, Cause of all causes, knows whom He would feed on which of the two.41

Elsewhere there are verses using the image of bubbles, to picturise the nature of life.42 Bubbles are small globules of air within thin casings of water which go on forming and bursting with the slightest disturbance. This image is appropriate to express the fragility, uncertainty and evanscence of life, but it is not legitimate to believe that the air of a particular globule of a burst bubble goes to form another bubble, as souls are supposed to do in metempsychosis. In fact the concept of individual souls, jivatma in addition of the one supreme soul, paramatma, is not necessary, because out of the five fundamental elements (pancha tatvas) of which the phenomanal reality is believed to be composed, while four (water, fire, air and earth) are gross and material, the fifth (akash or ether) is subtle. Even if all the five are not accepted as divine (because God is both material and efficient Cause of the world), spirituality cannot be denied to akash (lit, sky) which semantically stands for heaven as well as fo

r all-pervading ether and is a metonym for God.43

Significantly, Guru Arjun Dev in one of his hymns lucidly analyses a funeral scene, with the conclusion: "No one dies; none comes orgoes".44

Air has merged in air,

Fire has mingled with fire,

Earth has become one with earth,

Wherefore is the mourner?s lament?

Who had died? Who has expired?

Come ye possessors of knowledge divine

And consider this instant wonder!

Nothing is known of the hereafter:

The mourner, too, bound in misconceived affection

Blindly muttering as in sleep,

Is for sure to follow thither.

Coming and going by the infinite Divine will

Is but a system of the Creator?s doing:

(In fact) no one dies, none is liable to death;

One ceases not but becomes everlasting.

This is not what you think it to be,

I am a sacrifice to one who knows:

The Guru has lifted all doubt, says Nanak,

No one dies, none comes or goes.57

The idea of "nothing comes, nothing goes" appears in several hymns of Guru Granth Sahib (e.g.209, 281, 695, 736, 878, 1074). Where the end of destruction of the world is meant, the verbs samauna (to merge, comingle, to be accommodated or absorbed), dhahupa (to demolish) or dhahina (to be demolished, to fall) are used more often than binasana (to perish, to be annihilated), signifying that the end of physical existence is not its obliteration, or reduction to nothingness, but its return to whence it had emerged, that is to say, its re-absorption or resumption by the metaphysical transcendent Reality.

While the existence of inviduated souls and their transmigration in multimillion species may thus be subjected to "reasonable doubt", the question of apparent contradiction or inconsistency in the holy verses still remains. World has been declared both true 45 and false,46 Man has been made responsible for his action.47 but he has also been declared free of sin and virtue.48 The reason is simple. The Guru Granth Sahib is not a systematically built up scholastic treatise. It is an anthology of hymns, mostly devotional, which the Gurus composed under divine inspiration and recited to different audiences at different times and places. Their purpose usually was "to bring divine knowledge, spiritual experience and ethical thought to the simple, working folk."49

This compassion for mankind, caught in sin, and engaged in daily toil, has been characteristics of the mission of the holy Gurus, and is visible no less in the preparation of this Scripture than in all the other measures adopted to spread and consolidate the Sikh faith."62 But the Gurus also talked, discussed and argued at times with the learned of other faiths such as Brahman priests, yogis and siddhas. Now, as every teacher and public speaker knows, unless the teacher/speaker speaks at the level of his/her audience, or at only a slightly higher level than theirs, all what he says will go over the head of the listeners. The bulk of the bani of the Sikh Gurus, aimed as it was chiefly at the toiling masses, contains general truths in simple language that stimulate ardent faith rather than deeper, discriminating thought. But the Gurus also had to teach higher, subtler truth which they knew was not everybody?s cup of tea, because it had, of necessity, to contain references to the classical, using their diction a

nd idiom. Secondly, the entire text of the Sikh Scripture is in the poetic mode. Poetry, being an art, needs ornamentation (alankar) by means of figures such as repetition, metaphor, poetic fancy, hyperbole, contradiction, even incongruity; poetry is neither pure emotion and thought nor mere manner. A beautiful idea must appropriately incarnate itself in a beautiful expression?.The function of alankar is to heighten the effect: it is to aid the poet to say more pointedly."50

Deeper and more careful study with proper regard to context should, however, easily lead to clear understanding of seemingly contradictory verses. For example, if we know that in "True are your regions and true the universes"58 the word "true" means "real" - against "illusion" of Sankaracharya, while in "False is king, false the subjects and false the entire world."59 "false" does not mean "opposite of true" but lacking constancy and immortality of truth"; the contradiction vanishes.

Similarly, in Guru Arjun Dev?s hymn given above,57 joti (sanskrit jyoti) in line 2 contextually means not light or soul but "fire", one of the five elements, as are "air" in the preceding line and "earth" in the succeeding one.

In conclusion, we may say that death, instead of being a mystery, is a moral and integral part of the natural process of existence, a mere means to keep life ever fresh through recreation and rejuvenation. Dread of death arises from the impending loss of what must be left behind, and is directly propertionate to the intensity of one?s attachment to worldly goods and relations. Only if we could visualize how, in our small bodies somatic cells are constantly making and breaking, without our being aware of them, death would no longer remain a "dreadful calamity" for us. Karma, the law of cause and effect, is operative, under hukam, in this very world which is nothing but an extension or phenomenal aspect of the noumenal Ik Oankar All the elements of material existence including akas, the animating energy, belong to Him, the Cosmic Soul. Individuated souls and their transmigration might be justifiable as useful tool to explain complex concepts, but we cannot be sure about them. Their only justification is the pla

yfulness of the Cosmic Creator who has set up this Cosmos - of name and from - as His sport,42 and who, sitting Formless in the Region of Truth, enacts, watches it thoughtfully, and enjoys it with benign glance.52


1. maranu likhai mandal mahi ae. (GG, 686, 876,1022)

2 marani na murati puchhia puchhi thiti na var. (GG, 1244)

3. Jo janamai tisu sarpar marna kirat paia siri saha he. (GG, 1032)

jo aia so chalsi sabhu koi ai variai. (GG, 63, 474)

4. Jo upajio so binasi hai naro aju kai kalu. (GG, 1428)

jo upajai so kali sangharia. (GG, 227)

5. Rabindranath Tagore, Religion of Man, 1961 ed. 1963 impression, P.123.

6. phai karan phuli banrai, phalu laga tab phul binai.(GG, 1167)

7. The old order changeth, yielding place to new,

And God fulfils himself in many ways.

Lest one good custom should corrupt the world.

(Tennyson, The Passing of Arthur)

8. ram bamu naru nisi basur mahi nimakh ek uri dharai.

Jam ko trasu mitai nanak tih apno janamu savaral.(GG, 902)

9. Kabir jisu marane te jagu darai merai mani anandu,

marane he te paiai puranu paramanandu. (GG, 1365)

jih maranai sabhu jagatu tarasia, so marana gursabadi pragasia.(GG, 327)

10.maranu na manda loka akhiai je koi mari janai

maranu munasa suria haku hai je hoi matani parvano. (GG, 579-80)

11. Ramkali Sadu, Guru Granth Sahib, P. 923.

12. Chandi Charitra. I. 233

13. The Encyclopaedia of Religion, Macmillan, 1987. Vol.13. pp. 432-36.

14. Liu Wu-Chi, A Shoirt History of Confucian Philosophy (Penguin), 1955, P.94

15. atman sri basudevasya je koi janasi bheva.(GG, 1353)

atma basudevasyi je ko janai bheu. (GG, 469)

atam ramu ramu hai atam har paiai sabdi vichara he. (GG, 1030)

16. dharam dhira kali andre ihu papi mul na tagai.

ahi karu kare su ahi karu pae ik ghari muhata na lagai. (GG, 1098)

17.The Encyclopaedia of Religion, vol. 13, p.439.

18. Kishordas Svami, Bharatiya Darshan aur Mukti Mimansa, varanasi, 1980, pp.3212 and 452-58.

19. to 22. Roer, E. The Twelve Principal Upanisads. Vol. I, Delhi, 1979, pp. 174-77, 214, 217, 113.

23. The Encyclopaedia of Religion, Vol. 15, p. 208

24. The Surangama Sutra, "The Essence of Mind", in The Speculative Philosophers, Random House Pocket Library edition, 1954, pp.142and 150.

25. to 29. Podgorski, Frank R., Ego revealer - Concealer, University Press of America,1984, p. 29, 69, 188, 215, 70.

30. Kathopnisad, Ii. 5.7; Brihadaranyak, II, 2. 13.

31. The Twelve Principal Upanisads, Vol. I, pp. 52-53.

32. je hau janba akha nahi kahana kathanu na jai. (GG, 2)

33. Ken Upanisad. 2. 2.

34. Nanak sache ki sachi kar. (GG, 7)

35. Karami avai kapara nadari mokhu duaru. (GG, 2)

36. Ehu jiu bahute janam bharammia ta satiguri sabadu sunaia. (GG, 465)

37. Lakh chaurasih jant upae, mere thakur bhane sirji samae. (GG, 1182)

38. Ihu parpanchu kia prabh suami sabhu jagjivanu jugane.

Jiu salalai salal uthahi bahu lahari mili salalai salal samane. (GG. 977)

39. ape maia ape chhaia, ape mohu sabha jagatu upaia. (GG, 125)

40. sabh kichhu tun hai tun hai mere piare, teri gudarati kau bali jai jiu. (GG, 98)

41. api marai mare bhi api, api upae thapi uthapi. (GG, 413)

41A. naha kicchu janamai naha kicch marai, apan chalit ap hi karai. (GG, 281)

42. ape dharti dhaulu akasan, ape sache gun pargasan.

Jati sati santokhi ape ape kar kamai he. (GG, 1021)

43. apas kau api dino manu, nanak prabh janu eko janu. (GG, 282)

44. karte ki miti na janai kia, nanak jo tis bhavai so vartia. (GG, 285)

45. Japu. 1-3.

46. an ko kijai mitara khaku ralai mari jai jiu.

Bahu rang dekhi bhuli bhuli avai jai jiu.

Nadari prabhu te chhutial nadari meli milai jiu. (GG, 751)

47. Prabh bhavai ta patit udharai. (GG, 277)

48. Sukhmani, XI. 3 (GG. 277)

49. ape khel kare sabh karta aisa bujhai koi. (GG, 1330)

50. Sukhmani, XI. 1-7. (GG, 276-78)

51. Gauri, M.5, 126, 3-4. (GG, 206)

52. Basant M.1, astpadi 7. (GG, 1190)

53. karm sukarm karae ape ape bhagti driraman. (GG, 635)

54. Nanak maia karam birkhu phal amrit phal visu.

Sabh karan karta kare jisu khavale tisu. (GG, 1290)

55. jiu jal upari phenu budbuda taisa ihu sansara,

jiste hoa tisahi samana chuki gaia pasara. (GG, 1257-58)

56. Kahn Singh, Gurusabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh, 1981 edition, p. 93.

57. Ramkali, V, 10 (GG, 885)

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