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List of Shud Raags and their rules - Bhai Avtar Singh


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Seva carried out by Prabhjit Singh:

Ragas of Sri Guru Granth Sahab

The following arrangement has been followed in the scheme of notation.

First the parent scale (Thath) is given and then the class (Jati) of the raga, which may be pentatonic (Arav), hexatonic (Sharav) or septatonic (Sampuran). This is followed by the notes (Svares) used in the raga. The sonant (Vadi) is given followed by the consonant (Samvadi) note. In some cases the atmosphere of the raga is then indicated. Then follow the notes of the ascending movement. (Aroha) and the descending notes (Avaroha). The characteristic notes (Pakad) of the raga are indicated. The Ragas of the Sikh Scripture are given in the serial order. The notation of the Dhunis of the vars is not mentioned here, but will be found in the two volumes in Punjabi entitled Gurbani Sangeet: Prachin Ritt-Ratnavali (pp. 953-

983) by Bhai Avtar Singh and Bhai Gurucharan Singh, published by Punjabi University, Patiala, 1979.

M Teevar

S + P Shud Only

R Shud + Komal

G Shud + Komal

D Shud + Komal

N Shud + Komal

Note: M Teevar is represented by m in notation.

R (komal) is represented by r

G " " g

D " " d

N " " n

1. SRI RAG

Thath: Poorvi. Jati: Arava-Sampuran

Svaras: R, D, m, rest Shudh. Varjit G D in Aroha.

Vadi: R Samvadi P

Atmosphere: Solemn and grave

Time of Singing: Evening (6 PM-9 PM)

Aroha: S r r P, m P N S

Avaroha: S N d P, m D m G R, R R P R G G R S

Pakad: S, r, r, P, m G r, GR S

Note: This is an important raga and occupies the first place in the Sikh Scripture. The word "Shri" means great or respected. It is an important raga and its quite popular. In avaroha, S r P are used in accompaniment and M Teevar is touched frequently.

2. MANJH

Thath: Khamaj, Jati: Sharav-Sampuran

Svaras: S R M P D N Shudh

S R G M D N in Aroha;

N in Avaroha:

S n D P, D n D P, M G R S

G and N both Sudh and Komal

Vadi: S, Samvadi: P

Time of Singing : Fourth Pahar of the day (3 PM- 6 PM)

Aroha: S R, M P D, N S

Avaroha: S N D P, D N D, P, M G R S

Pakad: M G R S, N P N S P N S, N D P M G R S

3. GAURI

Thath: Bhairav, Jati: Arav-Sampuran

Svaras: S r M, P N

Vadi: r Samvadi: P

Atmosphere: Peaceful and Tanquil

Time of Singing: Afternoon (3 PM-6 PM)

Aroha: S r M, P N

Avaroha: S N d P M G r S, N S.

Pakad: S r M P, G r S N D P M P N S

Note: It is extremely devotional in mood. It has the greatest number of composition including the popular Sukhmani Sahib of Guru Arjan. This raga is not sung in Tar Saptak.

4. ASA

Thath: Bilaval. Jati: Arava-Sampuran

Svaras: All Shudh, (N somethimes are used in descending movement)

Vadi: M. Samvadi: S

Atmosphere: Peaceful and refreshing

Time of singing: Fourth Pahar of the night (3 AM-6 AM)

Aroha: S R M P D S

Avaroha: S N D P M G R S

Pakad: S, R, M P D, P M, G R S R G, S

Note: N is sometimes used in Avaroha for greater impact of the raga. It produces Bhakti rasa (devotional emotion),

which is very essential for early morning prayer. Asa-di-Var the Sikh devotional dawn composition consisteing of

24 chhants, 24 pauris and salokas is sung daily in Gurdwaras and homes for its blissful effect.

5. GUJRI

Thath: Todi Jati: Sharav-Sharav

Svaras: R G D (komal), M (Teevar), S and N Shudh, Varjit P

Vadi: D. Samvadi: G

Atmosphere: Solemn and devotional

Time of Singing: 9 AM-12.00 Noon (second Pahar of the day)

Aroha: S r g m D N S

Avaroha: S N d m g r S

Pakad: m d N d, m g r g r s

6. DEVGANDHARI

Thath; Bhairav. Jati: Arava-Sampuram

Svaras: S G M P D (Shudh): R and d in Avaroha, both forms of R, D & N are used.

Vadi: M. Samvadi: S

Atmosphere: Peaceful and tranquil

Time of Singing: First Pahar of day ( 6 AM-9 AM0

Aroha: S R M P, d P M, P D S, R S

Avaroha: R S N d P, M n P, M G R S.

Pakad: M, P d, m, G, S R M

7. BIHAGRA

Thath: Bilaval. Jati: Arav-Sampuran

Svaras: S G M P N: in Avaroha (Both M, N). R & D prohibited in Aroha.

Vadi: G. Samvad: N

Atmosphere: Peaceful and refreshing

Time of Singing: Second pahar of the night (9 PM-12.00 midnight)

Aroha: N S G M P N S

Avaroha: S N D P, n D P, m G M G R S

Pakad: G M P n D P, G M G, R S.

8. WADAHANS

Thath: Khamaj. Jati: Sharav-Sampuran

Svaras: N (Both); S R M P D (Shudh); G in Avaroha

Vadi: P Samvadi: R

Time of Singing: Third Pahar of the day (12 Noon-3 PM)

Aroha: S R M P D n P N S

Avaroha: S n P D M, G R S, N S

Pakad: S R M P n P, D P, M G R, S, N, P N S

9. SORATH

Thath: Khamaj Jati: Arav-Sharav

Svaras: S R M P N (Shudh); D, n IN Avaroha

Vadi: R Samvadi: D

Atmosphere: Peaceful and devotional

Time of Singing: Seocnd Pahar of the night ( 9 PM- 12.00 midnight)

Aroha: S R M R N S

Avaroha: S R n D P D M G R N S

Pakad: R M P N, S n D P M D, M R N S

Note: This is a light and beautiful raga and conducive to meditation on the True Lord (43).

10. DHANASRI

Thath: Kafi. Jati: Arav-Sampuran

Svaras: N G (Komal), S R M P D (Shudh);

Vadi: P Samvadi: S

Time of Singing: Third Pahar of the day (12.00 noon-3 PM)

Aroha: S g M P n S

Avaroha: S n D P M g R S

{M M}

Pakad: N S {g g} M P, P, n D P, g, M, g, R S.

11. JAITSRI

Thath: Poorvi Jati: Arav-Sampuran

Svaras: M (Teevar): S G P N (Shudh): R, D m in Avaroha

Vadi: G Samvadi: N

Atmosphere: Solemn

Time of Singing: First Pahar of the night (6 PM-9 PM)

Aroha: S G, m P, N S

Avaroha: S r N d P m G P G r S.

Pakad: S G m P, D m P, P m G P G r S.

12. TODI

Thath: Todi. Jati: Sampuran

Svaras: R, G, D (Komal) M (Teevar), N Shudh: (Slight P in Aroha)

Vadi: D Samvadi: G

Atmosphere: Blissful.

Time of Singing: Second Pahar of the day (9 Am -!2.00 Noon)

Aroha: S r g m P d N S

Avaroha: S N d m P m d m g r g r S

Pakad: d, n S, R g, r S, m, g r g r S

13. BAIRARI

Thath: Marwah. Jati: Sampuran.

Svaras: R (Komal), M (Teevar), rest Shudh

Vadi: G Samvadi: D

Time of Singing: First Pahar of the day (6 AM- ( AM)

Aroha: S r G, m p m G,P D N S

Avaroha: S N D P G P m G r s

Pakad: P d G,P D, m G, r G, m G, r S

14. TILANG

Thath: Khamaj Jati: Arav-Arav

Svaras: S G M P N, n in Avaroha: R D Varijit

(not used)

Vadi: G Samvadi: N

Atmosphere: Light.

Time of Singing: Third Pahar of the day (3 PM-6 PM)

Aroha: S G, M P N S

Avaroha: S n P G M G S

Pakad: N S G M P N S, N P, G M G, S

Note: In this raga, there is emphasis on G and N. Thumri is generally sung in this raga.

15. SUHI

Thath: Bilaval Jati: Sampuran

Svaras: N (shudh & Komal), rest Shudh.

Vadi: P Samvadi: S

Time of Singing: Second Pahar of the day ( 9 AM-!2 Noon)

Aroha: S R G M, R G M P, N D N S

Avaroha: S n D P, n D P, M G, D P M G R, P M G R, G R S

Pakad: S n P, M G R G M M G R S.

16. BILAVAL

Thath: Bilaval. Jati: Sampuran

Svaras: All Shudh ( N Komal in Avaroha)

Vadi: D Samvadi: G

Atmosphere: Peaceful, tranquil

Time of Singing: Second Pahar of the day ( 9 AM-12 Noon)

Aroha: S R G M P, N D N S

Avaroha: S N D P, M G R S

Pakad: D, P M G M R S

17. GOND

Thath: Bilaval. Jati: Sampuran (Irregular)

Svaras: All Shudh

Vadi: S Samvadi: M

Time of Singing: Second Pahar of the day ( 9 AM- 12 Noon)

Aroha: S R G M, P D N D N S

Avaroha: S N D N P, M G R S

Pakad: M, P, N D N P, G ,M, G, R, G R S

18. RAMKALI

Thath: Bhairav. Jati: Arav-Sampuran

Svaras: R D (Komal), rest Shudh

Vadi: P Samvadi: S

Time of Singing: Fourth Pahar of the night ( 3 AM- 6 AM)

Aroha: S R G, M G, P d, S

Avaroha: S N d, M P d n P G, M, r S

Pakad: P, M P, d n P, G, M, r S.

Note: Guru Nanak composed Sidh Gosht in this raga because it is popular with the Yogis.

19. NUT-NARAYAN

Thath: Bilaval. Jati:. Sampuran-Arav

Svaras: Both M, rest Shudh: G, N prohibited in Avaroha

Vadi: P Samvadi: R

Time of Singing: Second Pahar of the night ( 9 PM-12 Midnight)

Aroha: S r S, N D P, D S, r G m P, m D N D S

Avaroha: S N d P , G, D m G P m G R S

Pakad: m G m D n S, r N d P, D , G, R S

20. MALI GAURA

Thath: Marwah. Jati: Sampuran

Svaras: r, both types ofM and D, rest Shudh

Vadi: r Samvadi: P

Time of Singing: First Pahar of the night (6 PM-9 PM)

Aroha: S r S, N D P, D S, r G m P, m D N D S

Avaroha: S N d P Mm G, D m G, P m G R S

Pakad: m G m D N S, r N d Pm D m G, R S

21. MARU

Thath: Khamaj. Jati: Arav Sampuran

Svaras: Both M & N, rest Shudh, R prohibited in Aroha

Vadi: G Samvadi: S

Time of Singing: Third Pahar of the day (12 Noon- 3 PM)

Aroha: S M G M P D S N S

M R

Avaroha: S n D P M D P M, P M, G S

Pakad: S M G M P D S N S

22. TUKHARI

Thath: Khamaj. Jati: Sampuran

Svaras: G, M both ( M slightly used) and N both; rest Shudh

Vadi: P Samvadi: S

Time of Singing: Fourth Pahar of the day (3-6 PM)

Aroha: N S g R S, G M P M P M P, P D n D P M P, S N S

Avaroha: S N S N S, n D P, P M P M P, M g R S, R N S

Pakad: P D n n D M P G M P M G R S N S

23. KEDARA

Thath: Kalyan. Jati: Arav-Sharav

Svaras: S M P D N Shudh, M (Teevar); R G prohibited in Aroha & G in Avaroha-occasional touch of G.

Vadi: M Samvadi: S

Atmosphere: cooling and healing

Time of Singing: First Pahar of the night (6 PM-9 PM)

Aroha: S M, m P, D P, N D, S

Avaroha: S N D, P, M N P DP, M G M R S

Pakad: S M, M P, m P D P M, M R S

24. BHAIRAV

Thath: Bhairav. Jati: Sampuran

Svaras: R D (Komal) rest Shudh

Vadi: d Samvadi: r

Atmosphere: Solemn

Time of Singing: Early morning (fourth Pahar of the night 3 AM 6 AM)

Aroha: S r G M P d N S

Avaroha: S N d P M G R S

Pakad: d d P G M r S

25. BASANT

Thath: Poorvi. Jati: Sharav-Sampuran

Svaras: R & D Komal, M (both Shudh and Teevar) rest Shudh

Vadi: S Samvadi: P

Atmosphere: Refreshing and inspiring

Time of Singing: First Pahar of the night (6-9 PM); any time during the Spring reason

Aroha: S G, m d, r S

Avaroha: r N d, P, m G, R S, M

Pakad: S M, m m G, N d P, m G, S g, m D S

26. SARANG

Thath: Kafi. Jati: Arav-Arav

Svaras: N (both Shudh and Komal), G D (Varjit: forbidden), rest Shudh

Vadi: R Samvadi: P

Atmosphere: Light

Time of Singing: Second Pahar of the day (9 AM-Noon)

Aroha: S R M P N S

Avaroha: S n P M R S

Pakad: N S, R, P M R, S

27. MALAR/MALHAR

Thath: Khamaj. Jati: Sampuran-Sampuran

Svaras: All Shudh;

Vadi: M Samvadi: S

Atmosphere: Soothing and refreshing

Time of Singing: Any time in the rainy season or late night time

Aroha: S R R G M, M P, N D N S

Avaroha: S D P M G, M R, R S

Pakad: S R G M, M R P, D N P, M R S

Note: There are various types of Malar, but Mian ki Malar is very popular

28. KANRA

Thath: Kafi. Jati: Sampuran

Svaras: G Komal, rest Shudh; (R P for accompaniment) both N, D prohibited.

Vadi: P Samvadi: S

Atmosphere: Solemm

Time of Singing: Second Prahar of the night (9 PM-12 Midnight)

Aroha: S R g, M P N S

Avaroha: S n D n P M P g M R s

M

Pakad: S, R n S R P g, N, n P, M P S, n P, M P, M G M, R S

29. KALYAN (YAMAN)

Thath: Kalyan. Jati: Sampuran-Sampuran

Svaras: M (Teevqar), rest Shudh

Vadi: G Samvadi: N

Atmosphere: Solemn

Time of Singing: First Pahar of the night (6 PM to 9 PM)

Aroha: S R G, m P, D, N S

Avaroha: S N D, P, m G, R S

Pakad: N R G, R, S, P m G, R S

30. PRABHATI

Thath: Bhairav, Jati: Sampuran

Svaras: R, d (Komal), both M, rest Shudh

Vadi: M Samvadi: S

Time of Singing: Early morning (fourth Pahar of the night, 3 AM-6 AM)

Aroha: S r G M, m G, M P d N S

Avaroha: S N d P M, G r S

Pakad: G M G, r S, R, S, d N S, G M d P, M G M G R S

Note: Literally "Prabhati" means dawn. So this raga is sung at pre-dawn or dawn.

31. JAIJAWANTI

Thath: Khamaj. Jati: Sampuran

Svaras: Both G, both N, rest Shudh

Vadi: R Samvadi: P

Time of Singing: Second Pahar of the night ( 9 AM-12 Midnight)

Aroha: R g R S, R, G M P, D P N S

Avaroha: S n D P D M, G R, R G R S

Pakad: R g R S, D n R

Note: This raga is used only by Guru Tegh Bahadur

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  • 2 weeks later...

Namjap, this practice hsa developed to many social, political and trend reasons. I suggest you read the different posts within the Gurmat Sangeet section of this forum, most touch on this subject in different ways.

Some reasons were the British/Christian interferance in all Indian art's and beliefs, Christian introduction of the vaja and the Sant style of countering the conversian tactics, huge influence of Indian Classical music in the 20th C, the rise and influence of All India Radio, growing kan ras/trend/bollywood influenced sangats and their requirements, bollywood, Punjabi pop, many raagis being trained by and influenced by Indian Classical gharanai etc...

Other than this there is the influence of many great Sikh personalities who didn't do kirtan in raag for various circumstantial reasons of the time i.e. Bhai sahi Randhir Singh Ji, Baba Santa Singh Ji, Baba Isher Singh Ji to name but a few.

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