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Vaheguru ji ka Khalsa Vaheguru ji ki Fateh,

A benti to the more senior/resourceful members of the forum, could you kindly help with this request please;

Could you kindly provide any sources (references/scans) of where the Anand Sahib Ji has been mentioned in purtan texts/hukumnamai.

In particular, with reference to Vasakhi 1699, NITNEM and ending kirtan divans.

I am trying to establish from where the trend of 6 pauri Anand Sahib Ji 1st started.

I have heard various theories and references but have not the resources to pin them down i.e. 6 Pauris may have started during the early Sikh Regiment recruitment campaigns where it was compulsory for all non-Khalsa initiates to first take Amrit before joining the Unit, and the British suggested the shortened version to speed up the process.

Also, it may have been a decision made by the "SGPC/Tat Khalsa?Singh Sabha "intellectuals" upon re-assessing and re-drawing Sikh practices.

I have heard that puratan sources give 2 mentions re Anand Sahib being read in 1699, one mention is of the 1st 5 paurian, the second, of just the Anand Sahib (implying complete), but I do not have the reference for these.

If any veer/bhen has these references, I would be indebted if they could scan and post them for me.



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The actual 5 banis as they are considered today by most people is more a 'seena-baseena' rehit than something that can entirely proved through the use of historical reference (I have posted elsewhere on this forum references from puratan sources concerning the Vaisakhi of 1699 and for Amrit Sanchar with respect to the Banis recited and overall, every single source varies considerably).

The theory that the 5 + 1 mode of the shortened Anand Sahib was an innovation by the SGPC or by the British is frankly a fantasy designed to support some grand claims by various deras, jathas, organisations and sampradhas etc to somehow nitpick over non issues.

Looking at this simply, if indeed this shortened Anand Sahib was the result of these supposed factors, then why do all of the accusers use the same format for their Rehiras recitation?

Also, perhaps have a look at the Anand Sahib contained within the Punj Granthi.

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Dear veer Niranjana Ji,

You are quite right re the disparity.

However in the below useful article, a common theme seems to be 5 - 5 pyare, 5 svaye, 5 paurian Anand Sahib, 5 palms of amrit, 5 repiticians of Gur/Mul Mantar etc...

Anyhow, my limited opinion is that it is quite likely 5 paurian of Anand Sahib Ji were recited, but would still like to know where the 6 paurian tradition started, as it seems odd, each pauri is complete in it self, and continuous recitation stopping at the end of any pauri is also complete, but jumping and leaving out 80%, completing the last pauri and then mentioning Anand sahib in teh ardaas as is done in many Gurdwara after kirtan, doesn't make me feel comfortable, surely Anand Sahib, can only be Anand Sahib in it's entirety?

ਅਨਦੁ ਸੁਣਹੁ ਵਡਭਾਗੀਹੋ ਸਗਲ ਮਨੋਰਥ ਪੂਰੇ ॥

anad sunhu vadbhaageeho sagal manorath pooray.

How can our desires be fullfilled when we haven't even listened to Guru Amardaas ji's Anand Sahib? Saying or hearing this to my mind feels hypocritcal.

I may of course be wrong about all this, which is why I am trying to find the story behind the 6 pauri version, it may be there isn't one. I am not trying to create a debate re this, each to their own, just pursuing my own little search.


Which Banis did the Tenth Guru recite at the time of administering Amrit?

-Principal Harbhajan Singh, Satnam Singh

This information we have culled from Prof. Piara Singh Padam’s book ‘Rehatnamas’ and from the book on ‘rehat maryada’ published by the Chief Khalsa Diwan. Here to be brief, we will mention only different references given about the ‘banis’ recited/read at the time of administering ‘amrit’. Detailed information can be had from the concerned books.

(1) Rehatnama Bhai Daya Singh (Piara): A good Sikh partakes of ‘amrit’ of Sri Amritsar. First, he reads or recites complete Jap ji, from the beginning to the end and the Chaupai. Which Chaupai (quartet)? (There is no indication.) He reads five different sawaiyas: 1. Srawag 2.Dinan Ki Pritpal 3. Papp smooh Binasan 4. Sat sdaiv suda brat, and 5 five stanzas of Anand Sahib. He stirs the ‘amrit’ with a kirpan towards himself. Then one Singh places a kirpan beside him. (Note: Here there is no mention of Jaap Sahib and complete Anand Sahib. There is however mention of stirring ‘amrit’ with a Kirpan.)

(2) Bhai Chaupa Singh (Tenth Gurus’s Hazuri Sikh): Then the perfect Guru Sahib started testing the Panth. On the seventh day of Sawan, 1756 Sambat, the consecrated drink was sought to be prepared. Guru Sahib said, "Chaupa Singh, bring water in a bowl." When water was brought, Guru Sahib commanded, "Hold the ‘Khanda’ (double edged sword) and stir the contents of the bowl." Then all the five started reading out ‘swaiyas’ each. Which five? Daya Singh…. Sahib Singh…. Himmat Singh…. Dharam Singh…. Mohkam Singh…?. When these five Singhs started reading out ‘swaiyas’, then Sahib Chand Diwan made a request, "True Sovereign, if ‘ptashas’ (sugar bubbles) are put in the bowl, it will be better." In the meanwhile, Mata Shakti, Mata Sahib kaur, assuming the form of the ‘devi’ (goddess) put sugar bubbles in the bowl. The perfect Guru Sahib took five palmfuls and put them on the eyes, and five palmfuls in the hair. Then he recited the following ‘swaiya’ from the ‘Chandi Charitar’:

"Deh Shiva war mohey ehay

Shubh karman te kabhon na taron.

Na daron ar siyon jab jaye laron nishchay kar apni jeet karon.

Ar Sikh hon apne hi mann ko eh lalach han gun ton ochron.

Jab aav ki audh nidhan baney

At hi run mein tab joojh maron.

[O God of power, bless me,

That nothing deters me from gracious deeds.

And when fight I must, I fight for sure to win.

That I am instructed in wisdom only by my higher mind,

That I crave ever to utter thy praise.

When comes the end of my life,

I die fighting in the thick of a (righteous) war’}

Guru Sahib administered ‘amrit’ to the five Singh with his own hands. Next day, more Sikhs requested the Master that they too be administered ‘amrit’. He said, ‘prepare ‘Karah Parshad’ and have it from the five Singhs after reading ‘swaiyas’.

[Note: This ‘Maryada’ (practice) too does not accord with any current practice or any other practice.]

(3) According to Guru Bilas Patshahi Daswin: [Author: Bhai Koer Singh, p-128] It is considered to have been written in 1808 sambat, i.e. 1751 A.D. about 43 years after the passing away of the Tenth Guru]

‘Sarita jal leen achhoot mangaye kay,

Patar loh mein tan prabh beray.

Parhtey su udass hai mantron ko,

Prabh thadhey hai app bhaiye so saverey.’ (p-25)

[Note: Here there is only a mention of reading ‘mantra’ (mool mantra)]

(4) Bansawalinama: [Genealogical Tree] of the ten Guru Sahibaan written by Bhai Kesar Singh Chhiber (11826 Sambat). According to this writing:

Guru Sahib said: ‘Get a bowl of water at once.’

When it was brought, Guru Sahib gave ‘karad’ (knife) to a Sikh and asked him to stir the water in the bowl. Then Guru Sahib asked him to read aloud Japu Ji Sahib and Anand (Tenth part).

Here it is worth nothing that Chhiber has used the word ‘karad’ instead of Khanda and has mentioned the reading out of two ‘banis’ ‘Jap’ and ‘Anand’.

[sikh Sanskar atey maryada-Chief Khalsa Diwan, p-63]

(5) History of the Sikhs, written by Khushwant Rai: 1811 sambat, i.e. 1754 A.D. In the peperation of ‘amrit’ there is mention of reading aloud only five swaiyas. (p-63).

(6) Pracheen Panth Parkash, written by Bhai Rattan Singh Bhangu, edited by Bhai Vir Singh Ji, published in 1941 A.D. Var Bhagauti, first pauri (stanza) swaiya No. 32, Tribhangi Chhand-Khag Khand.

[Note: Here there is mention of reading of reciting three different ‘banis’, which are different from those that are read these days.]

(7) ‘Suraj Parkash’ written by Bhai Santokh Singh Ji: Banis read at the time of preparing ‘amrit’ are: Jap Ji, Swaiyas, five stanzas of Anand Sahib. [Note: Here is no mention of reading out Jaap Sahib and Chaupai. Only reading out five ‘pauris’ (stanzas) of Anand Sahib have been mentioned.]

(8) Guru Panth Parkash: {Giani Gian Singh), edited by: Singh Sahib Giani Kirpal Singh, p-1573}: ‘Jap Ji Sahib-5pauris, Jaap Sahib-5 pauris, Das Sudh, Anand Sahib, and Chaupai.

[Note: Here is mention of reading out five ‘pauris’ each of Jap Ji Sahib and Jaap Sahib and this too is not clear which ‘Chaupai’ should be read out-the one in the beginning of ‘Akal Ustat’ "Pranvo aad ek nirankara" or the 27-pad kabiyo vach Chaupai from 377 ti 404 Chaupadas of Charitar No. 405 of ‘Charitro Pakhiyan’?]

(9) ‘Gurbilas Patshahi 10’: written by Bhai Sukha Singh of Patna Sahib: The author has mentioned the reading out of some ‘mantras’ while preparing ‘amrit’. He has not mentioned the reading out of any particular ‘bani’ or ‘banis’.

(10) ‘Guru Sobha; Likhari, Kavi Senapati (Singh): Guru Gobind Singh’s poet Laureate Senapati (Singh) in his book ‘Guru Sobha’ has not described any method of administering the ‘pahul of Khanda’ (consecrated drink prepared with Khanda-two edged sword). He has only mentioned the ‘kurehats’ (breach of Sikh code of conduct) like mundan (tonsuring), smoking hookah and having relations with ‘minas’ or ‘masands’.

(11) Sri Kalgidhar Chamatkar, written by Bhai Vir Singh: Bhai Vir Singh Ji writes the following on page 27-28: "At the place where yesterday Sikhi was put to test, today there is a throne around which the devotees are sitting. ‘Karah Parsad’ (sweet pudding) for 1100 is kept on white sheets. On the throne is sitting Guru Gobind Singh Ji apparelled in white. Before him lies a shining steel bowl containing water with a two-edged sword in it. In front of him are standing the five Sikhs of yesterday, the liberated ones, who had offered their heads. They too are clad in white. Guru Sahib spoke to them-the five-"‘Waheguru’ is the ‘gurmantra’ chant it with perfect concentration." While the ‘Five’ got busy in chanting ‘Waheguru’, Guru Sahib himself started stirring the ‘Khanda’ in the bowl and reciting ‘banis’. Standing before the ‘Five’ who had offered their heads, he made one of them recite the ‘mool mantra’ five times. Then he gave him five palmfuls of ‘amrit’ sprinkled it on his eyes and put five palmfuls in his hair. In this manner he administered ‘amrit’ to the ‘Five.’

{ Note: Here there is no mention of the ‘banis’ that were read or recited. The Five beloved ones too had been chosen a day before. Next day, one of them was made to recite the ‘mool mantra’ five times] (Based on the article published in the Khalsa Samachar of 6-13 April 2000).

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Veer Ji - the article you have cited pretty much sums up the same points I had made elsewhere last year, so the tradition of the shortened Anand Sahib we can agree has always been there across all Sikh Groups and is not an innovation by the British or SGPC (which is simply a management committee, not a sampradha or jatha like its detractors try to suggest in their attempts to prove themselves as the one and only true acceptable form of Sikhi).

The issue now is why 5 + 1 and not just the first 5 pauris - again certain groups (in particular one new age Sikhi group) like to attribute this to the British as well and use it (together with various other non-issues) as a means to differentiate themselves with the ultimate aim (akin to all sub groups, sects and cults) of justifying their position as the one true upholders of the Khalsa and only acceptable 'version' of Sikhi.

Anyhow to stick with the topic at hand, the question still remains that is the addition of the 40th pauri an recent innovation or one that can be traced back in Sikh History. For certain we can discredit the "British" influence theory given that given that all Groups have this mode of the Anand Sahib in their liturgy, including those who claim to have been strong opponents of the British (whether they were or not is a different subject).

There are many ways we can choose to explain the inclusion of the 40th pauri (a common one amongst many Granthi circles being to 'close the door which one has opened'), however which of these is true is perhaps a latter discussion, right now I would suggest we consider the shortened Anand Sahib contained within the Punj Granthi and look at the history of this collection and decide whether this was indeed a innovation at the hands of political motivations or a traditional Sikh practice.

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I don't know Niranjana, you've been saying this thing about all groups believe they're the only way.

From my personal experience among three of the four traditional samprdas (barring nihangs admittedly, not met enough to say), I don't get that vibe at all. The Udasis are the udasis, and they know and respect the function of the Nirmalay and Sevapanthis, and vice versa....never a 'well they're like this which is where they go wrong'. Speaking to one very important Udasi recently he commented that while they and Nihangs have contrasting goals and functions, their's is similar (with subtle differences) to the Nirmalay and Sevapanthis. Conversely speaking to one (important I'm told) Nihang at Harian Vela, he started respectfully telling me how the Nirmal Mandal started from Baba Sri Chand (oops!), implying a general ignorance rather than a definite understanding. Of course the UK scene seems different with a definite 'we're right and they're wrong' mentailty...which as you've pointed out before is no different to what already exists. But as we all know the root of that (I hope) is political. In all honesty, among those who practice adhyatamic vidya they all know that neither your bhekh, nor sareer, nor jaat, nor varnashram dharma make the slightest bit of difference. It is merely the aagyaa given to them by maharaj, no more no less. the proof is in the pudding!

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If a person does question the functionality and its historical connotation, think of the masand period...there was a period between 1623, when guru hargobind sahib 'standardized' the charan pahul rehit and the udasi's of guru tegh bahadur where there was a sense of pluralism which did exist. I think that is what the aim of the khalsa (in all its forms was)....a stable, yet foot patrolling organization that dynamically makes sure that the basics of dharam and maryada (communal at that) is upheld so that the institutions don't become stagnant with uncultured paradigms coupled with corruption...(hmm, wonder why that is the case now)...I guess the pudding got sour

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With due respect, the comments about certain groups putting forward their claims to be the upholders of true Khalsa dharm is perhaps not best addressed by using examples of non-politicised bodies like the Udasis, Sevapanthis or Nirmalas, who may not hold such views, however the Panth today has far more sampradhas, jathas and the like than just these...

Moreover, these so-called 'traditional sampradhas' are not the only ones to put forward theories about the British altering the entire face of the Sikh people, there is plenty of this talk prevalent amongst many sampradhas, organisations and jathas which are comparatively modern who harbour such views and whilst speaking of the 'panth' clearly view themselves as the one true version of events.

Anyhow, I only referenced this, since any claims about historical items or analysis of scriptures should also be consider in light of the source and what agenda (or indeed lack of) that source may have...back to the Anand Sahib, has anyone had a chance to look into the Panj Granthi?

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